Port-au-Prince, Haiti - The nation of Haiti began on this date. It was the only nation born from a successful slave revolt.
Haiti was the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean. It was the second republic in the Americas. It was the first nation to abolish slavery.
The Haitian Revolution took more than 12 years. 3 colonial armies were defeated (2 French and 1 British). (22 August 1791-January 1, 1804), in the fight.
This revolution led France to sell the Louisiana Territory, to the United States (1803). In Europe, it launched the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).
Washington, D. C. - This executive order began the end of slavery, in the United States. While not a law, it had Presidential force behind it. The Proclamation removed legal enforcement and protection for slavery.
The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to States in open rebellion. It did not make slavery a crime, in the United States. On September 22, 1862, Abraham Lincoln issued it. This was five (5) days after Antietam (i.e. the Battle of Sharpsburg).
Union Springs, Alabama - John Henrik Clarke was born, on this day. His father was a sharecropper. His mother was a domestic worker.
Clarke pioneered American study of black nationalism and Africana studies. For this, Clarke was called 'The Master Teacher' for his scholarly lectures. An unmatched knowledge of the historical record of black people, gained Clarke respect around the world.
In many lectures, Clarke rejected anti-black racist propaganda. Much of this was taught in United States schools as fact. Instead, Clarke taught true and factual accounts, of American and African history.
Oakland, California - Oscar Grant III was shot and killed by Johannes Mehserle, Thursday at 2:15 a.m. Grant III was shot point-blank and face down, with Mehserle on his back. Mehserle worked for the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) police.
The round that Mehserle shot into Grant, bounced off the concrete, into Grant's lungs. Grant cried out immediately that Mehserle shot him. Less than seven hours later, Grant died at 9:13 a.m., at Highland Hospital, in Oakland, California.
On January 30th, 2010, Mehserle was charged with Grant's murder. Mehserle was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and served 11 months in jail.
The last day of Oscar Grant's life was made into a movie, Fruitvale Station (2013).
Rosewood, Florida - The black community of Rosewood was destroyed in one (1) week. A large white mob, from nearby towns, descended on Rosewood. Whites massacred the black people of the town and razed it.
The massacre started from a rumor. Word spread that a white woman was attacked by a black drifter, in nearby Sumner, Florida. As more white towns heard the rumor, a white mob formed.
On January 1st, the mayhem began. It ended January 7th. That is when the white mob burnt the last of Rosewood to the ground.
Tuskegee, Alabama - George Washington Carver died, on this day. Carver was a black American agricultural scientist and inventor.
Carver promoted alternative crops to cotton. His best known work was with peanuts. Carver published 105 food recipes using peanuts.
As a botanist, Carver worked on methods to prevent soil depletion.
Washington, D. C. - The Center for Disease Control (CDC) made its first attempt to blame AIDS on black women. After this report, race was counted as a factor in AIDS.
The Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) was the AIDS report from the CDC. It made a link betwen black and hispanic women and AIDS. Never again, was AIDS questioned as a disease. It made black women the face of it.
AIDS & Black women
AIDS Blamed on Black Americans
North Carolina - Noble Drew Ali was born Timothy Drew.
Ali founded the Moorish Science Temple of America. In 1913, Ali founded the Canaanite Temple in Newark, New Jersey. Later, the Temple relocated to Chicago. There, Ali converted thousands.
Noble Drew Ali died July 20th, 1929, in Chicago, Illinois.
Louisiana - Qumana and Harry, with Charles Deslondes, led the largest slave revolt, in United States history. It began on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, in Louisiana.
On Tuesday evening, January 8th, 1811, the slave uprising moved downriver to New Orleans. They marched on River Road. The plan was to raid New Orleans, and end slavery.
500 people joined the march to New Orleans. But, before their goal was reached, the local militia stopped them.
Half the total deaths (about 40) were from the militia. Another 55 were executed. About 100 escaped. The rest were returned to bondage (slavery).
Charles Deslondes, a 'free' man, was executed by the militia. He was burned alive.
Detroit, Michigan - Tamla Records was founded on this day. It was renamed Motown, on April 14th, 1960. Berry Gordy Jr. founded and made Motown into a hit-making machine. In fact, the home of Motown is named Hitsville, U. S. A.
Motown Records became one of the most iconic record labels in American history. Motown produced hits from Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross, and many more.
Houston, Texas - Khalid Abdul Muhammad was born Harold Moore Jr. and raised by his aunt. Muhammad was a prominent member of the Nation of Islam.
Later, Muhammad served as the National Chairman of the New Black Panther Party. Muhammad held this title, until his death. He died February 17th, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia.
Muskogee, Oklahoma - Bass Reeves ('The Real Lone Ranger') was the 1st black United States deputy Marshal, in the west. Reeves was one of the most colorful, adventurous, and accomplished deputies of his time.
Born in 1838, Reeves was born in slavery. During the Slavery War, his enslaver joined the Confederate Army and brought Reeves. During the war, Reeves escaped. He stayed in Indian Territory. There Reeves learned the Creek and Cherokee languages.
Once the (13th) Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, Reeves returned to Arkansas. There he farmed, until 1875. Due to his language skills, Reeves was recruited for a deputy Marshal job.
Reeves served primarily Arkansas and the Oklahoma Territory. During his long career, Reeves made more than 3,000 arrests. Many were dangerous criminals. Reeves shot and killed 14, in self-defense.
Richmond, Virginia - The General Assembly of Virginia passed the Vagrancy Act of 1866. It was an attempt to re-enslave black people after the Slavery (Civil) War. The all-white government of Virginia made it a crime if an adult had no job.
On January 24, 1866, Alfred H. Terry commanded the U. S. Army in Virginia. He made a proclamation that forbade the law from being enforced, in the state.
The actions of the General Assembly led to Reconstruction of the South. It was clear white, defeated Southerners had no intention to obey Federal laws after the Slavery war. At least, this was the case when it came to black people.
Vagrancy Act Full Transcript
Vagrancy Act of 1866
Background - Vagrancy Act of 1866
Louisville, Kentucky - Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born. He became Muhammad Ali, in 1966.
Ali was an American professional boxer, activist, and member of the Nation of Islam.
Many consider Ali one of the most significant and celebrated figures of the 20th century. In boxing, Ali was called 'The Greatest' of his time.
Washington, D. C. - The first legal observance of Martin Luther King Day was in the United States. This was the first Federal holiday for a black man.
On November 2, 1983, President Ronald Reagan signed, into law, to make it a Federal holiday. States were not required to observe the holiday. At first, many states refused to accept it. This included many southern states.
By 2000, all states recognized the Federal holiday, but called it by other names. Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and Virginia called it Stonewall Jackson Day. These states chose to honor a Confederate General who fought the United States, to uphold slavery.
First Observance of Martin Luther King Day
Burbank, California - Roots was first broadcast, on ABC (American Broadcasting Company). It was the story of a black family. It began in Africa, with the birth of a black child, in 1750.
As the child grew, he reached the age of maturity. There, he began his rites of passage. It was at this time, that he was captured, by white males. These whites made him a slave.
Roots showed his path through the Transatlantic Slave Trade and into American slavery. Slave existence was shown all the way to the American Slavery War. The final part showed life after slavery, the Ku Klux Klan, and a grim future for black people. The time spanned over 100 years of black life.
There were 8 parts. Each was shown over 8 days. All times are Eastern time. Roots Parts 1 and 2 were on Sunday and Monday, 9:00-11:00 p.m.
Parts 3, 4, and 5 were on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday, from 10:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. Part 6 was on Saturday, from 9:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. Part 7 was on Sunday, from 10:00 p.m - 11:00 p.m.
Roots Part 8 was on last, on Monday, from 9:00 p.m. - 11:00 p.m. Part 8 was the highest rated of the series. It was the third (3rd) most watched show in television history.
New York, New York - CBS (Columbia Broadcasting System) showed 'Crisis in Black America' on national television. Black people were shown as loose, broken, and hopeless. It showed black men as poor fathers.
The stories were from Newark, New Jersey. The problems of this city were used by CBS to present all black people in the same way. Bill Moyers, a white man, was the narrator.
The mothers and fathers were never shown talking to each together. Moyers only spoke to the women, or the men, but not at the same time. No black families were shown talking to one another. It implied black people were alienated from one another.
Moyers spoke to a black man, who said he gave no support to his six (6) children. This one statement sparked outrage among whites. Thus began the 'Deadbeat Dad' myth in the United States.
CBS aired this five (5) days after the first Martin Luther King Day in the United States.
The Vanishing Family: Crisis in Black America
Keene, New Hampshire - Hillary Clinton, then First Lady, called American youth, super predators. The comment was made with regard to drugs and crime. Clinton stated a new Crime Law had passed in 1994. She said the effort was anti-crime, anti-drugs, and anti-gang.
All of Clinton's comments were made against black people. Since Nixon, crime fighting meant sending more police at black people. Fighting drugs meant more jail for black people. Fighting gangs meant using black youth as targets.
After decades of policy to link crime, gangs, and drugs with black youth, Clinton made the connections in one address.
To this day, these comments have followed her.
Hillary Clinton Super Predators
Atlanta, Georgia - The Nation of Islam sent two (2) of its members to meet the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The two men were Malcolm X and Jeremiah X.
Elijah Muhammad wanted his mosques safe, in the South. A meeting was arranged with the KKK. It was held at the home of Jeremiah X. As national spokesman, Malcolm X spoke for the Nation of Islam.
The KKK speaker was W.S. Fellows. It was estimated 10% of the KKK were Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) snitches. The FBI may have used the meeting to learn more about the Nation of Islam.
The Nation of Islam got the safety it wanted. Malcolm X, it was believed, began to doubt Elijah Muhammad.