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Black History Month 2022

Jul August Sep

First Use of Black-on-Black Crime



Chicago, Illionis - The first use of the phrase, 'Black-on-Black Crime' in national print media, was in the August, 1979 special issue of Ebony Magazine.

Since the early 1960s, whites tried to tie Black Americans to crime. Barry Goldwater tried it in the 1964 election for President. It did not work.

Once the 1965 Watts Riot ended, new calls were made for law and order. Yet, they still were not strong enough to join race with crime. That slowly changed as riots increased through 1967 and 1968.

By 1969, Richard Nixon ran for President as a law and order choice. The tactic of tying Black Americans to crime worked and Nixon was elected.

The term 'Black-on-Black Crime' was still limited in use in the early 1970s. Over the course of Nixon's time in office, the term became more widely used. Yet, by the late 1970s, it was still not a commonly used term in public. Ebony Magazine changed that with its special issue on the phrase.

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John Crawford III Killed By Police



Beavercreek, Ohio - Sean Williams killed John Crawford, III. Williams, a white male, worked for the Beavercreek Police Department. Crawford was killed as he shopped in a Walmart.

Crawford picked up a bb gun, off a shelf, in a Walmart store. As Crawford carried it, he talked on his phone. Ronald Ritchie, a white male, called the police, and said Crawford aimed the harmless item at people in the store. Video footage showed Ritchie had lied. Ritchie later admitted he lied.

In response, Williams entered the Walmart store and shot and killed Crawford. As customers fled the shooting, a woman died of a heart attack.

Neither Ritchie nor Williams were tried for any crimes that led to the two (2) deaths.

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1965 Voting Rights Act Signed



Washington, D. C. - President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

Source:

Voting Rights Act

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Ku Klux Klan Marched on Washington



Washington, D. C. - Tens of thousands of whites marched to show their support for the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The KKK was based on hatred of Black Americans.

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Abner Louima Raped By Police



New York, New York - New York City police worker Justin Volpe sodomized Abner Louima with a broom stick. At the time, Abner Louima was 30 years of age. Volpe was 24 years of age.

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Michael Brown Killed By Police



Ferguson, Missouri - Michael Brown was killed by Ferguson police worker, Darren Wilson. Brown was 18 years of age, when he died. At the time, Wilson was 28 years of age.

A store worker alleged Brown stole cigars. Wilson found Brown. As Brown ran, Wilson shot at Brown. Once Brown stopped and turned, Wilson shot him six (6) times. Brown was unarmed. Wilson quit the Ferguson Police Department later that year.

The day of the killing, the Black American community, in Ferguson protested. Further protests were in November of that year, and August of 2015.

Source:

Michael Brown Killing

Wilson Killed Brown

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Watts Riots Began



Los Angeles, California - The longest, costliest, and most destructive civil disorder of 1965, began in Los Angeles. It lasted five (5) days, until August 16th. It all began from a police stop.

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Social Securiy Act Excluded Black People



Washington, D. C. - President Franklin Roosevelt signed the Social Security Act into law. It excluded 65% of the Black American workforce, at the time. They were farm laborers and domestic workers (Title II Sec. 210). This was Roosevelt's Second New Deal.

The law never covered the work most Black Americans people did. Most Black American men worked on farms. Black American women worked in the homes of white women. It was normal for Black Americans to get the most menial and back-breaking jobs. The law made sure to ignore them when it came time to get public support.

At a time of Jim Crow and the Great Depression, this new law only hurt Black American labor in the nation. It gave benefits to whites who already had major benefits and support over Black Americans.

No Black American was at the signing of the Social Security Act.

Source:

Original Social Security Act of 1935

Social Security Act

Rewriting History By the Social Security Administration

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Springfield Race Riot of 1908



Springfield, Illinois - Thousands of local and immigrant whites attacked and killed Black Americans. The violence lasted 2 days and was only stopped with the state militia.

Two (2) Black American men were accused of attempted rape of two white women. Word spread and a mob formed to lynch the Black American men. When the white mob learned the men had been transferred out of the city, the violence began. Whites killed random Black Americans, burned homes, destroyed businesses and private property. The white mob attacked any who sympathized with Black Americans.

This event helped start a movement for civil rights groups in the United States.

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Newberry Lynchings



Newberry, Florida - Whites killed six Black Americans. Four (4) men and two (2) women died, with one pregnant. They were all lynched. The men were Andrew McHenry, Bert Dennis, and John Haskins. The women were Mary Dennis (pregnant) and Stella Young.

It all began because white men accused a Black American man of stealing hogs. None of the lynched were the man accused.

None of the whites were punished for the killings.

Source:

Newberry Lynching Marker

Florida Lynchings

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Crown Heights Riots



Brooklyn, New York - Riots lasted 3 days after Yosef Lifsh killed Gavin Cato and severely injured his sister, Angela. Lifsh was 22 years of age at the time. He was a Jewish driver that hit a building, in the Crown Heights area of Brooklyn.

After Lifsh crashed, it caused a pillar to fall on two children, Cato and Angela. When help came, Lifsh was helped first. The children were still trapped until the pillar.

By the end of the rioting, dozens were injured. All 129 arrests were of Black Americans, except for seven (7) whites. There was one (1) million dollars in property damage.

Lifsh was never prosecuted. He was never jailed. He paid nothing to the families of Gavin or Angela, for their loss.

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Nat Turner Uprising Began



Southampton (likely), Virginia - Nat Turner began an uprising against whites. Not much was recorded about the incident, at the time.

It is believed more than 55 whites died as a result. The uprising was stopped. Turner was caught after six (6) weeks in hiding. He and 16 of his followers were hanged, in Jerusalem, Virginia.

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Project 100,000 Announced



New York, New York - Project 100,000 was revealed in a speech. It was created by Robert Strange McNamara. The Project sent tens of thousands of young, Black American men to Vietnam.

McNamara was the Secretary of Defense. He served from 1961-1968. This included both United States Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy.

McNamara wanted to expand the military in Vietnam. The United States military lacked the manpower. McNamara's solution was young, Black American men.

In 1963, under Kennedy, McNamara increased the military in Vietnam, from 900 to 16,000. Kennedy had problems with Black Americans who fought for Civil Rights. McNamara had a plan to solve the 'Black problem' and Vietnam.

November 22, 1963, Kennedy was killed. McNamara kept his job under Johnson. Johnson faced the same 'Black problem' as Kennedy. But, it was an election year. Johnson wanted nothing to hurt his campaign.

In 1964, McNamara tried a limited military program to target Black American men and Vietnam. It was the Special Training Enlistment Program (STEP). It reduced entry standards to get an extra 15,000 men into the military.

Congress rejected the STEP program. Funding was denied. It was called pointless. STEP used the military to replace existing jobs and education programs.

President Johnson won the election. With Johnson's full support, McNamara expanded his plans to send young, Black American men into Vietnam.

In 1965, once again, Congress denied McNamara funding. Undersecretary of Defense Alfred Fitt said McNamara was furious. McNamara continued without funding.

April, 1966, McNamara reduced the standard to enter the military. The score, for entry, was lowered on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT).

Tuesday, August 23, 1966, McNamara announced Project 100,000. It was at a speech in front of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. It was before Congress came back from recess.

By 1972, when Project 100,000 closed, more than 340,000 extra men were sent to Vietnam.

Adam Clayton Powell denounced the actions of Johnson and McNamara. He called them, Hitler-ish. Martin Luther King, Jr. condemned the Vietnam War. It was at a speech in New York called, 'Beyond Vietnam.' Muhammad Ali said the Vietnam War was started to get him.

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Emmett Till Killed



Money, Mississippi - Two white males, Roy Bryant (middle) and J. W. Milam (right) murdered 14 year-old Emmett Till. Roy's wife, Carolyn, lied about Till. That led to Till's murder.

Till was from Chicago, Illinois. He visited relatives, in Money, Mississippi. Till visited a local store, and spoke with Carolyn. Days later, Roy and Milam kidnapped Till, from Till's great-uncle's house. Milam was Roy's half-brother.

Roy and Milam beat and mutilated Till. Then, they shot Till in the head. Finally, Till's body was sunk in the Tallahatchie River. Three (3) days later, Till's body was found.

In September 1955, Roy and Milam faced trial. The jury was all-white. The prosecutor, defense attorney, and judge were white. Roy and Milam were found not guilty.

On January 24th, 1956, Roy and Milam confessed, in a Look magazine article. Milam said he had no plan to murder Till. But, Till showed no fear. Milam murdered Till for that.

Till's murder inspired Rosa Parks. It led to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The boycott made Martin Luther King, Jr. a national figure.

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'I Have A Dream' Speech Given



Washington, D. C. - At the March on Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke to the crowd. It was his 'I Have A Dream' speech.

The event was formally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. It took place at the National Mall. 250,000 attended.

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1964 Philadelphia Race Riot



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - 3 days of burning, violence, and disorder started with a traffic dispute. Two died in the violence. There were hundreds of injuries, arrests, and stores damaged.

At 9:35 p.m., Friday, police workers Robert Wells (Black American) and John Hoff (white) went to a domestic dispute. It began at the corner of 22nd Street and Columbia Avenue.

Odessa Bradford stopped the car as she argued with Rush, her husband. She refused to move out of the intersection. The cops tried to grab her from the car. A large crowd gathered.

A man tried to help Odessa. Both were arrested. The crowd threw bricks and other debris at the police. Rumor spread that a white cop had beaten and killed a pregnant, Black American woman. This fed the disorder.

The minor incident turned into total chaos. North Philadelphia was in turmoil for days.

In response, SWAT (Special Weapons Assault Teams) was formed. These police assault teams became Special Response Teams (SRT), in many cities.

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Katrina Hit New Orleans



New Orleans, Louisiana - Hurricane Katrina swamped New Orleans. The levees that protected the lower Ninth Ward were destroyed. The United States military used explosives to breach the levee and flood eastern New Orelans.

On August 23, 2005, Hurricane Katrina was spotted. It started as a tropical storm. On August 25, 2005, it became a hurricane, in Florida. On August 26, 2005, Katrina moved into the Gulf of Mexico and got worse.

On Sunday, August 28th, 2005, thousands of people took shelter in the New Orleans Superdome. This included 150 National Guardsmen.

Over time, the military sent more to shelter there. It reached 15,000-20,000 people. It included the old, women, children, the sick, and the disabled. The vast majority were Black American.

On Monday, August 29th, 2005, just after midnight, Katrina hit New Orleans. The rain began. Hurricane force winds battered the buildings. It continued until about 7 a.m.

At 6:20 a.m., the power failed in the Superdome. Medical equipment failed. Only emergency lights worked in the almost dark building.

By 7:00 a.m., the worst of the storm had passed. Katrina dumped 5-10 inches of rain on New Orleans, in 24 hours. There was minor flooding and property damage. The leevees were intact.

Between 7 a.m. and 9 a.m., the 7th Street levee was destroyed. the United States military used explosives to breech the levee. It made a hole that was 3 football fields long.

This was the largest leevee in the city. It sat next to the Lower Ninth Ward, in southeast New Orleans. At the time, it was 98% Black American. Many were homeowners.

At 9:00 a.m., the roof of the Superdome began to fail. People saw the sky, through the roof. Rain poured into the building. The military stopped anyone from leaving.

At the same time, a 10 foot wave of water rushed into the Lower Ninth Ward. It flooded the entire ward. 100,000 homes were destroyed. Most of the Black American homeowners never recovered and never returned.

The highest parts of the Lower Ninth Ward were flooded. This included private homes and the Holy Cross School. The school served as a shelter during Hurricane Betsy, in 1965. The government broke those levees, too.

By 11:00 p.m., Mayor Ray Nagin said there was major damage to the city. Bodies were seen in the water, mainly in the Lower Ninth Ward.

On August 30th, 2005, the Superdome began to fill with water. There was no clean water, no toilets, and an awful odor.

By August 31st, 2005, three (3) people had died, in the Superdome. Two were elderly. One man committed suicide.

New Orleans lost at least 1,800 lives due to the blown levees. Most lived in the Lower Ninth Ward and Lakeview neighborhoods. City-wide, over 150,000 homes were flooded. The hardest hit was the Lower Ninth Ward.

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'12 Years A Slave' Shown



Telluride, Colorado - '12 Years A Slave' was shown at the Telluride Film Festival.

The movie began with a 'free' Black American man, in 1841, in Washington D. C. He was put into slavery by two (2) white males. This lasted 12 years. Finally, he got word back to New York, of his bondage. He returned to New York, 12 years later.

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Martin Luther King Targeted By FBI



Washington, D. C. - J. Edgar Hoover was alarmed by the success of the March on Washington. Martin Luther King, Jr. was seen as a communist threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Hoover had been Director of the FBI since 1924 (39 years). He saw King as a threat to national security. The Soviets (Russians) used the plight of Black Americans for diplomacy. They used lynching and segregation to expose American freedom and democracy.

In a comment, Hoover made these comments. 'I for one can't ignore the memos re King, [words redacted] et al as having only an infinitesimal effect on the efforts to exploit the American Negro by the Communists.'

W. C. Sullivan, of the FBI released a memo, after King's speech of two days before.

'Personally, I believe in the light of King's powerful demagogic speech yesterday he stands head and shoulders over all other Negro leaders put together when it comes to influencing great masses of Negroes. We must mark him now, if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this Nation from the standpoint of communism, the Negro and national security.'

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