Port-au-Prince, Haiti - The nation of Haiti began on this date. It was the only nation born from a successful slave revolt.
Haiti was the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean. It was the second republic in the Americas. It was the first nation to abolish slavery.
The Haitian Revolution took more than 12 years. 3 colonial armies were defeated (2 French and 1 British). (22 August 1791-January 1, 1804), in the fight.
This revolution led France to sell the Louisiana Territory, to the United States (1803). In Europe, it launched the Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815).
Washington, D. C. - This executive order began the end of slavery, in the United States. While not a law, it had Presidential force behind it. The Proclamation removed legal enforcement and protection for slavery.
The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to States in open rebellion. It did not make slavery a crime, in the United States.
Union Springs, Alabama - John Henrik Clarke was born, on this day. His father was a sharecropper. His mother was a domestic worker.
Clarke pioneered American study of black nationalism and Africana studies. For this, Clarke was called 'The Master Teacher' for his scholarly lectures. An unmatched knowledge of the historical record of black people, gained Clarke respect around the world.
In many lectures, Clarke rejected anti-black racist propaganda. Much of this was taught in United States schools as fact. Instead, Clarke taught true and factual accounts, of American and African history.
Oakland, California - Oscar Grant III was shot and killed by Johannes Mehserle, Thursday at 2:15 a.m. Grant III was shot point-blank and face down, with Mehserle on his back. Mehserle worked for the Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) police.
The round that Mehserle shot into Grant, bounced off the concrete, into Grant's lungs. Grant cried out immediately that Mehserle shot him. Less than seven hours later, Grant died at 9:13 a.m., at Highland Hospital, in Oakland, California.
On January 30th, 2010, Mehserle was charged with Grant's murder. Mehserle was convicted of involuntary manslaughter and served 11 months in jail.
The last day of Oscar Grant's life was made into a movie. Fruitvale Station (2013)
Rosewood, Florida - The black community of Rosewood was destroyed in one (1) week. A large white mob, from nearby towns, descended on Rosewood. Whites massacred the black people of the town and razed it.
The massacre started from a rumor. Word spread that a white woman was attacked by a black drifter, in nearby Sumner, Florida. As more white towns heard the rumor, a white mob formed.
On January 1st, the mayhem began. It ended January 7th. That is when the white mob burnt the last of Rosewood to the ground.
Tuskegee, Alabama - George Washington Carver died, on this day. Carver was a black American agricultural scientist and inventor.
Carver promoted alternative crops to cotton. His best known work was with peanuts. Carver published 105 food recipes using peanuts.
As a botanist, Carver worked on methods to prevent soil depletion.
North Carolina - Noble Drew Ali was born Timothy Drew.
Ali founded the Moorish Science Temple of America. In 1913, Ali founded the Canaanite Temple in Newark, New Jersey. Later, the Temple relocated to Chicago. There, Ali converted thousands.
Noble Drew Ali died July 20th, 1929, in Chicago, Illinois.
Louisiana - Qumana and Harry, with Charles Deslondes, led the largest slave revolt, in United States history. It began on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, in Louisiana.
On Tuesday evening, January 8th, 1811, the slave uprising moved downriver to New Orleans. They marched on River Road. The plan was to raid New Orleans, and end slavery.
500 people joined the march to New Orleans. But, before their goal was reached, the local militia stopped them.
Half the total deaths (about 40) were from the militia. Another 55 were executed. About 100 escaped. The rest were returned to bondage (slavery).
Charles Deslondes, a 'free' man, was executed by the militia. He was burned alive.
Detroit, Michigan - Tamla Records was founded on this day. It was renamed Motown, on April 14th, 1960. Berry Gordy Jr. founded and made Motown into a hit-making machine. In fact, the home of Motown is named Hitsville, U. S. A.
Motown Records became one of the most iconic record labels in American history. Motown produced hits from Marvin Gaye, Stevie Wonder, Diana Ross, and many more.
Muskogee, Oklahoma - Bass Reeves ('The Real Lone Ranger') was the 1st black United States deputy Marshal, in the west. Reeves was one of the most colorful, adventurous, and accomplished deputies of his time.
Born in 1838, Reeves was born in slavery. During the Slavery War, his enslaver joined the Confederate Army and brought Reeves. During the war, Reeves escaped. He stayed in Indian Territory. There Reeves learned the Creek and Cherokee languages.
Once the (13th) Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, Reeves returned to Arkansas. There he farmed, until 1875. Due to his language skills, Reeves was recruited for a deputy Marshal job.
Reeves served primarily Arkansas and the Oklahoma Territory. During his long career, Reeves made more than 3,000 arrests. Many were dangerous criminals. Reeves shot and killed 14, in self-defense.
Houston, Texas - Khalid Abdul Muhammad was born Harold Moore Jr. and raised by his aunt. Muhammad was a prominent member of the Nation of Islam.
Later, Muhammad served as the National Chairman of the New Black Panther Party. Muhammad held this title, until his death. He died February 17th, 2001, in Atlanta, Georgia.
Louisville, Kentucky - Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr. was born. He became Muhammad Ali, in 1966.
Ali was an American professional boxer, activist, and member of the Nation of Islam.
Many consider Ali one of the most significant and celebrated figures of the 20th century. In boxing, Ali was called 'The Greatest' of his time.
Atlanta, Georgia - The Nation of Islam sent two (2) of its members to meet the Ku Klux Klan (KKK). The two men were Malcolm X and Jeremiah X.
Elijah Muhammad wanted his mosques safe, in the South. A meeting was arranged with the KKK. It was held at the home of Jeremiah X. As national spokesman, Malcolm X spoke for the Nation of Islam.
The KKK speaker was W.S. Fellows. It was estimated 10% of the KKK were Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) snitches. The FBI may have used the meeting to learn more about the Nation of Islam.
The Nation of Islam got the safety it wanted. Malcolm X, it was believed, began to doubt Elijah Muhammad.