Tuskegee, Alabama - Tuskegee University began as the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers. It came from an agreement between a former Confederate Colonel, W.F. Foster, and a local black leader, Lewis Adams.
Foster sought to keep his office, in the 1880 election. He promised Adams a school for black people, if he delivered the black vote.
Adams delivered. Foster kept his promise. The State of Alabama passed a law for what would become Tuskegee University.
George W. Campbell, a former slave owner, recruited Booker T. Washington as principal. Washington held that position from July 4, 1881 until he died, in 1915.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana - Alton Sterling was shot at point blank range, by two white Baton Rouge police workers. Sterling died as a result of the shooting. The shooting was videotaped.
At 12:35 a.m., Monday morning, police arrived at 2112 North Foster Drive. The police were in the parking lot of Triple S Food Mart. A police call reported someone waved a gun and had threatened another. The store owner said Sterling had not caused any problems.
Once the two police workers saw Sterling, a large black man, they tried to arrest him. It is unclear what crime the two white police workers claimed Alton Sterling had committed.
The two police workers tasered and dragged Sterling to the ground. Howie Lake II placed his knee on Sterling's back. At the same time, Blane Salamoni grabbed Sterling's arms.
Lake shouted that Sterling had a gun. Salamoni pulled his gun and fired 3 shots into the back and chest of Sterling. Salamoni paused and shot Sterling 3 more times (totaled 6 shots), which caused Sterling's death.
The two white killers were never charged and kept their jobs with the police.
Falcon Heights, Minnesota - Philando Castile was murdered by Jeronimo Yanez, who worked for the St. Anthony, Minnesota police. Yanez fired 7 shots into a car with 3 people in it, including Castile.
Castile drove with Diamond Reynolds, and her 4 year-old daughter. He was licensed to carry a firearm and had no criminal record.
At 9:04 p.m., Tuesday evening, Jeronimo Yanez (pictured left) and Joseph Kauser, stopped Philando Castile (pictured right). Earlier, a police worker radioed that he wanted Castile stopped, 'just because of the wide-set nose.'
At 9:05 p.m., Castile told Yanez he was licensed to carry a firearm and that there was a firearm in the car. This was required by Minnesota law, for licensed gun owners.
The following exchange was said. Castile, 'I'm not pulling it out.'
Diamond Reynolds said, 'He's not pulling it out!'
Yanez, reached for his gun and yelled, 'Don't pull it out!'
Yanez pulled his gun and pointed it inside the car.
Reynolds was in the passenger seat, next to Philando Castile. Reynolds' daughter was in the back seat.
Reynolds yelled, 'No!'
Yanez fired (7) times at Castile, at almost point-blank range.
Five hit Philando Castile.
Reynolds live-streamed the aftermath of the shooting. She was arrested by the police and later released without charges.
Yanez was found not guilty of manslaughter. There were 10 whites and 2 black people on the jury. Initially, the jury voted 10-2 for not guilty. The two holdouts were pressured, and Yanez escaped punishment.
Dallas, Texas - The Dallas Police Department claimed Micah Johnson killed several police workers. Johnson was killed by Dallas police. The police bombed Johnson to death, in downtown Dallas.
On Wednesday, July 7th, there was a protest against police violence, in Dallas. The previous two (2) days, white male police murdered Alton Sterling and Philando Castile. Sterling was killed in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Castile was killed, in Falcon Heights, Minnesota.
In both cases, the victim was black and the police worker was white. Both times, the victim was shot at point-blank range, multiple times. Both times, the victim was killed. This started protests in Dallas, Texas.
It was alleged Johnson was angered over these murders of black men. Johnson responded and killed 5 police workers. He injured 11 others.
In the early morning hours, on Thursday, July 8th, it was claimed Johnson was in El Centro College. At 2:30 a.m., the Dallas police used a robot bomb, with C4, and killed Johnson. It was the first time a robot bomb was used, by police, for this purpose.
Manhattan, New York - Whites began the riot because of the draft, for the American Slavery War. It ended as a full-blown race riot, of whites that murdered black people. Much of the violence was because of feared competition from black workers.
New York had many pro-slavery supporters in the city, at the time. Most white laborers in New York were sympathetic to Southern slave traders, owners, and politics. A good number were Irish immigrants.
Whites lynched 10 black men, and a 7 year-old, black male child. The white mob burned a black orphanage. The most violent were the longshoremen (dock workers).
It was the worst riot, in American history. No one was charged or prosecuted for any violence committed against the victims.
New York, New York - A series of television programs showed Malcolm X, Elijah Muhammad, Louis Farrakhan, and the Nation of Islam to America. The series was produced by Mike Wallace and Louis Lomax. Wallace narrated.
Lomax was a black man and worked with Wallace, a white man. They worked for News Beat, on WNTA-TV (now WNET), in New York. Lomax did the interviews while Wallace narrated.
This was the first time whites had heard of the Nation of Islam. It was the first time Malcolm X appeared on television.
The series was called 'The Hate That Hate Produced.'
Staten Island, New York - Eric Garner was killed by New York police. Daniel Pantaleo, a New York police worker, had Garner in a headlock and suffocated him. As Garner suffocated, he cried out, 'I can't breathe.' Garner died for lack of oxygen.
At about 3:30 p.m., Justin D'Amico, worked as a plain-clothes police worker. D'Amico approached Garner. Moments earlier, Garner had just stopped a fight between two other people.
Possibly, because of the fight, Pantaleo approached Garner. Pantaleo accused Garner that he sold cigarettes. Pantaleo reached for Garner. Garner said, 'Please, don't touch me.'
Pantaleo grabbed Garner around the neck and restricted Garner's air. As Garner pled for his life, Pantaleo slowly choked Garner to death.
Garner's death led to national outrage. Video of the murder was seen across the country. The New York medical examiner ruled Garner's death a homicide. Despite this, no one was ever tried for Garner's murder.
Baton Rouge, Louisiana - Gavin Long allegedly killed 3 police workers in Louisiana. Long was killed by the police. It was claimed Long was motivated by recent murders of black men, by police.
Sunday, 8:48 a.m., Long was shot and killed, from 100 yards away. He was killed by a Special Weapons Assault Team (SWAT) worker of the Louisiana State Police. It was near Benny's Car Wash, in Baton Rouge, Louisiana.
Milwaukee, Wisconsin - Jeffrey Dahmer was arrested by the Milwaukee police. Dahmer killed 17 people, from 1978 to 1991. Only 3 of his victims were white. 9 were black. The rest were other races.
Dahmer was known as the Milwaukee Cannibal. Dahmer chose his victims due to his homosexual (i.e. gay) desire for them. He ate some of his victims. He cut off their heads and put them in his refrigerator. He had sex with some of the dead bodies.
Tracy Edwards, a black man, escaped Dahmer. Edwards told the police and got Dahmer arrested. The police found seven (7) heads in Dahmer's apartment.
On November 28, 1994, Dahmer died in prison. He was killed by Christopher Scarver, a black man.
Detroit, Michigan - 43 people died in the worst civil unrest of 1967. The Detroit police killed 14. Michigan National Guardsman killed nine (9).
Sunday, July 23rd, 3:45 a.m., Detroit Police workers raided an after-hours club (or blind pig). The raid was at 9125 12th Street, in the office of the the United Community League for Civic Action. It was above the Economy Printing Company.
Inside, 82 people celebrated the return of 2 from the Vietnam War. The police expected a few people inside, before the raid.
Once the police left, scavenging began. Later, the police returned. At 7 a.m., some were arrested. The crowds grew. It was mixed, black and white.
By mid-afternoon, the fires started. The unrest spread across the city. Mayor Jerome Cavanagh said it was 'critical' but not 'out of control.'
At 7:45 p.m., Cavanagh began a curfew. Alcohol and firearms sales were stopped. 80% of the arrests were black people.
July 24th, President Lyndon B. Johnson sent the Army, to Detroit. Johnson used the Insurrection Act of 1807. The Act was meant for enslaved black people.
July 25th, 8,000 Michigan National Guardsmen entered Detroit. They were almost all white. 4,700 paratroopers joined them. They came from the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions.
July 26th, the Guardsmen killed nine (9) people. None were killed by the Army.
July 27th, ammunition was taken from the Guardsmen. The unrest declined. By July 28th, the chaos ended.
Washington, D. C. - A 40 year-long syphilis experiment on black men was exposed. The Washington Star reported the story. The United States government used black men as test subjects, without their consent.
600 black men were used. They were rural farmers. They were never told they had the disease. A cure was known, but the Federal government never treated the men.
The experiment ended only because it was exposed. No one was punished.
Washington, D. C. - The Kerner Commission was formed. It was done under Executive Order 11365. The goal was to learn what caused the Detroit uprising and other recent civic disorders.
The commission was created during the Detroit uprising. President Lyndon Baines Johnson chose 11 whites and 2 black people. Three (3) questions were to be answered.
'What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?'
On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Report was completed. The Report stated, 'Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal.'
New Orleans, Louisiana - On Monday, local police and other whites killed 34-50 black people and injured another 150. The race riot happened in one day.
By 1864, the American Slavery War ended for Louisiana. On May 27th, 1864, Louisiana created a new constitution. It promised black soldiers, black land owners, and literate black people the right to vote.
On April 11th, 1865, Lincoln promised all black people the right to vote. Lincoln's killer, John Wilkes Booth, was at the speech. Booth killed Lincoln 4 days later.
Black codes followed Lincoln's death. These limited the rights of black people in Louisiana and other Southern states. This increased hostility toward black people in Louisiana.
May 1st to 3rd, whites massacred black people in Memphis, sparked by white police violence. This was fresh in the mind in New Orleans, as a constitutional convention was held July 27th.
Ex-Confederate soldiers, led by New Orleans Sheriff Harry T. Hays, disrupted the convention. It was moved to July 30th.
At 12:00 p.m. (noon), July 30th, the convention was held. A crowd of white opponents waited outside. 200 freedmen (mostly veterans) paraded to the convention in support.
The freedmen neared the convention. The opposition bothered the freedmen more the closer they got to the convention. Sheriff Hays arrived and began to fire blindly into the crowd. Many black people died. Others ran into the Mechanics Institute.
General Absalom Baird wired the Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton.
Baird said the following 'It was no riot. It was an absolute massacre by the police, which was not excelled in murderous cruelty by that of Fort Pillow. It was a murder which the Mayor and police of the city perpetrated without the shadow of a necessity.'
This massacre and the one in Memphis, May 1st-3rd, led to Reconstruction policies of the former Confederate South.