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Black History Month 2022

Aug September Oct

SWAT Created



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Special Weapons Assault Teams (SWAT) was created. It was formed as a reaction to the uprising of Black Americans, the previous month. This ultra-violent police squad became Special Response Teams (SRT).

SWAT used military tactics to attack and contain Black Americans. This included men, women, children, the elderly, and the disabled. It was most used during the War on Drugs, which began in 1981 and continued into the 2020s.

SWAT was used in routine drug raids on homes. These raids came with no warning to the people inside the house. Tear gas, flash bang grenades, and heavily armed, and armored employees were used in these raids.

SWAT raids became so common, the term 'SWATTING' came into use. SWATTING was a trick, though a very dangerous one. An anonymous caller told the police there were drugs in a target house (or some other type of unlawful activity). Without any evidence, the police sent SWAT to assault the home and the people inside.

Source:

The Story of SWAT

Origin of SWAT

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Kanye West Called Out President Bush



New York, New York - Kanye West made his famous statement about the Katrina response, of the United States government. He ended with 'George Bush doesn't care about Black people.'

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Little Rock School Desegregation



Little Rock, Arkansas - Nine (9) Black American teenagers were to attend the all-white Central High School. An angry white mob and the National Guard stopped them from going to school.

The United States Supreme Court ruled that exclusions based on race had no legal effect. On September 3, 1957, a Federal judge ruled that the students had instant access to attend classes at the then all-white school. Despite this, the Arkansas Governor blocked the Black American students from the school.

One of the Black American students, Elizabeth Eckford, tried to go to the school. She recalled what happened that day. 'They moved closer and closer. ... Somebody started yelling. ... I tried to see a friendly face somewhere in the crowd—someone who maybe could help. I looked into the face of an old woman and it seemed a kind face. But, when I looked at her again, she spat on me.'

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Off-Duty White Female Cop Killed Botham Jean



Dallas, Texas - Botham Jean was killed by off-duty Dallas police worker, Amber Guyger. She was a white female, 30 years of age. Jean was a Black Caribbean man, 26 years of age.

Jean was an accountant at a large accounting firm. Jean was in his apartment, eating ice cream. The door was slightly open. Guyger opened the door and entered. She saw Jean and pulled her gun. Guyger shot and killed, the unarmed and surprised, Jean.

Initially, Guyger was charged with manslaughter. After protests, she was charged with murder.

On September 24, 2018, Guyger was fired by the Dallas Police Department.

On October 1, 2019, Guyger was tried and convicted of murder, for the death of Jean.

On August 5, 2021, the conviction of Guyger for the death of Jean was upheld, in Texas Appeals Court.

On November 21. 2021, a second appeal by Gugyer was denied, in Texas Appeals Court.

Source:

Amber Gugyer Killed Botham Jean

Gugyer Conviction Upheld on Appeal

Second Guyger Appeal Denied and Conviction Upheld

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'War On Crime' Began



Washington, D. C. - Nixon's Attorney General, John Mitchell, gave a speech that announced the 'War on Crime.' This was the last piece in Nixon's plan to attack Black Americans in the United States. The first was the HMO, to limit access to health care. The second was the 'War on Drugs.'

The speech that started the 'War on Crime' was given at the Conference on Crime Reduction. It used Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime statistics. FBI crime counting often under-reported crime in white areas and over-reported it in Black American areas. This data was used to add funding for police and other punitive acts against Black Americans.

Source:

War on Crime

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Daughters of the Confederacy Formed



Nashville, Tennessee - The Daughters of the Confederacy was founded. The two founders were Caroline Meriwether Goodlett and Anna Davenport Raines. Both supported enslavement of Black Americans.

The group created monuments and memorials to those who fought to defend slavery.

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World Trade Center Attacked (9/11)



New York, New York - Hundreds of Black Americans were killed in terrorist attacks, in one day. They died at the World Trade Center. Many more were injured.

At 8:46 a.m., there was an explosion at the northern facade, of the North Tower, of the World Trade Center.

At 9:03 a.m., there was an explosion at the southern facade, of the South Tower, of the World Trade Center.

At 9:59 a.m., the South Tower collapsed.

At 10:28 a.m., the North Tower collapsed.

The Marriott World Trade Center was destroyed after both towers collapsed on it. It was 22 stories tall, with 825 rooms.

At 5:20:52 p.m., 7 World Trade Center collapsed. It was a 47-story building.

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1994 Crime Bill Signed Into Law



Washington, D. C. - President William Clinton signed into law the most expansive crime bill in United States history. It vastly increased funding for jails and prisons. Higher education for prisoners was stopped. The death penalty was now possible for more crimes.

The law had a 3-strikes section. Someone who was convicted 3 times of a crime, could face up to life behind bars. One of the crimes had to be a major violent felony. The other two crimes did not matter. Whether it was minor theft or a major felony, the third sentence in prison was severe.

The official name was the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act of 1994. It is also called the Clinton Crime Bill or the Biden Crime Law.

The Violence Against Women Act was Title IV of this legislation. It was based on the Black American man rapist trope. It was created by whites, after slavery, as an excuse to lynch (murder) and castrate Black American men, without punishment. There was no provision for false rape accusations (Brian Banks story).

This law created the final form of mass incarceration that exists today.

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Second Ku Klux Klan March on Washington



Washington, D. C. - The Ku Klux Klan held a second march on Washington, D. C. It followed the success of the previous year, on August 8th, 1925.

More than 50,000 whites were in the march and rally.

Source:

1926 KKK March

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Birmingham Church Bombing



Birmingham, Alabama - Four white males killed four (4) Black American girls in church. A bomb was placed at the 16th Street Baptist Church. More than a dozen people were injured. The only deaths were the children.

The victims were Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley, and Denise McNair. The bombers were in the Ku Klux Klan. They were Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr., Herman Frank Cash, Robert Edward Chambliss, and Bobby Frank Cherry.

On Sunday morning, the four (4) planted 15 sticks of dynamite at the church. The sticks were placed under the church steps, with a time delay. This was near the church basement.

About 10:22 a.m., there were five (5) children in the basement bathroom. They wore their best Sunday clothes. They changed into choir robes for the Sunday sermon.

The phone rang. The acting Sunday School secretary answered. She was Carolyn Maull, a 14-year-old girl. She heard the words, 'Three minutes.'

Less than a minute later, the bomb exploded. It threw the girls' bodies through the air like rag dolls. The explosion blew a 7-foot hole in the rear wall. A passing driver was blown out of his car. Several parked cars next to the church were destroyed.

Four of the girls were killed. The fifth was Susan Collins. She was the sister of Addie Mae. Susan was permanently blinded by the blast.

In 1977, Robert Chambliss was convicted for one of the murders. He was sent to jail for the murder of 11-year-old Carol Denise McNair.

In 2001, Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr. was convicted of all four (4) murders. He got life in prison.

In 2002, Bobby Cherry was convicted of all four (4) murders. He got life in prison.

Herman Cash died in 1994. He was never tried.

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First Use of Race in Law



Jamestown, Virginia - Race was used for the first time in law. Hugh Davis, a white male, had sex with a Black American woman. The penalty was the public whipping of Hugh Davis. No penalty was stated for the woman.

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Fugitive Slave Act of 1850



Washington, D. C. - The Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 became law. It was signed by President Millard Fillmore. It was part of the Compromise of 1850.

This Act gave more power to slave catchers when Black Americans fled across state lines. The Act opened a loophole. It became possible for a slave catcher to enslave 'free' Black Americans. It began with a filed court complaint. If it satisfied the court, the 'free' Black American was enslaved.

The Act of 1793 was more limited. Once a Black American fled across state lines, a slave catcher had to bear the full cost. The slave catcher was only allowed to enter that state, to capture. There was no duty for anyone to help, in the other state.

The Act of 1850 gave more power to the slave catcher. They had the power to demand help. Court officers had to assist, if asked. Part of the cost, was paid out of the U. S. Treasury.

The slave catcher was able to file a criminal complaint against anyone who refused to help. Those who helped Black Americans were open to criminal punishment. This included a financial penalty.

On June 28th, 1864, the Act was repealed.

This act inspired Harriet Beecher Stowe to write the book, Uncle Tom's Cabin.

Source:

1850 Fugitive Slave Act

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Martin Luther King, Jr. Stabbed



Harlem, New York - Izola Curry stabbed Martin Luther King, Jr. in the chest. She used a steel letter opener. To save King's life, surgeons opened his chest to remove the weapon.

King was on a book tour to promote his book, Stride Toward Freedom. The tour took King to Harlem, and Blumstein's Department Store. There, as King signed books, Curry came forward. She asked King his name. After she got her answer, she lunged at King and stabbed him in the chest.

After Curry stabbed King, a bystander grabbed her. Curry was ruled insane by the court. She died of natural causes, in New York, in 2015, at 98 years of age.

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The Spook Who Sat By The Door



New York, New York - 'The Spook Who Sat By The Door' movie was shown for the first time. It told the story of a Black American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee.

The CIA used him to showcase racial inclusion. He was put in a useless job, that made the CIA look good. He had other ideas and quit. With his training, he helped Black Americans wage a race war.

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Atlanta Race Massacre



Atlanta, Georgia - White mobs with white police attacked Black Americans for three (3) days. Whites feared competition from Black Americans, who came to the city to work. White fears were inflamed by the recent print of the Clansman, the previous year.

Black people were pulled from streetcars. They were beaten, stabbed, and punched. Whites rode through Black Americans areas and randomly shot into buildings. At least 24 Black Americans died. Only two whites died and one was from a heart attack. The other was from another white.

The news of the violence spread across the ocean. In France, it was reported that whites lynched Black Americans. The London Telegraph read that whites started anti-Black Americans riots.

No whites were punished for their violence against Black Americans. It took years to recover from the damage to Black American businesses, homes, and lost property, caused by the white mobs.

Source:

Opinion 1906 Atlanta Race Massacre

Opinion 1906 Atlanta Race Massacre

Why did the 1906 Atlanta Massacre happen?

Police violence and the 1906 Atlanta Race Massacre

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Army Escorted Black Students



Little Rock, Arkansas - Federal troops guarded Black American students as they went to an all-white high school. An angry mob of whites waited for them, as they entered Central High School. Angry whites were there when they left the school. The United Staets Army 101st Airborne helped the Black American students attend classes safely.

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Opelousas Massacre



Opelousas, Louisiana - Whites rampaged through the area and killed 150 people because Black Americans voted. A white supremacist group, called Knights of the White Camelia began the violence.

Source:

Opelousas Massacre

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WGPR Goes On-Air



Detroit, Michigan - The first wholly-owned and operated Black American television (TV) station began its first broadcast. This was a first in the United States. It was founded by William V. Banks. The station had no network affiliation so the station created its own programs.

Banks was an attorney. He founded The International Free and Accepted Modern Masons, Inc. and Order of Eastern Stars. The Masons sold WGPR 20 years later.

On September 20th, 1995, the deal was finalized. It left Black Americans with no control of any TV station in Detroit. No Black American television has broadcast since, in Detroit.

Source:

International Free and Accepted Modern Masons

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The Cosby Show Premiered



New York, New York - The Cosby Show first aired on NBC, at 8:00 p.m. EST. It showed the middle-class aspirations of Black Americans.

The format of the show was a situation comedy (or sitcom). It was an immediate hit. While NBC lagged behind ABC and NBC in viewers, The Cosby Show was a ratings powerhouse.

Dr. William H. Cosby, who created and starred in the show, wanted to present Black Americans in a good light. Black Americans were presented as well-adjusted and well-off.

Cosby's portrayal of Black Americans was mere fantasy, or wish-fulfillment. Whites used this image to justify the end of affirmative action. A TV show gave whites the excuse to deny Black Americans were suffering under their oppression.

The show ended the day after the Rodney King riots began.

Source:

Cosby Filming

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