Black History Month 2023

'ohio' - 7 results

Federal Protection for Black Americans Ended

Washington, D. C. - Posse Comitatus was passed which ended Federal protection for Black Americans in the South. It was a result of the compromise of 1877, that gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency. Hayes signed the law.

The Reconstruction Acts and Enforcement Acts were passed to protect the rights of Black Americans, from traitorous whites, in the South. President Ulysses S. Grant used the military to enforce the law and uphold the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

Black people were attacked and killed for voting, assembling, and holding office, by whites. President Ulysses S. Grant used the Army to protect the rights of Black Americans, in the South. Yet, Grant gave up on Black Americans to help the Republican party in Ohio, in 1875.

The governor of Ohio, that won the election, in 1875, was Rutherford B. Hayes. From that point, the Republicans made a further deal to sacrifice Black Americans in the 1876 Presidential election. It made Rutherford B. Hayes the first Democrat elected since the Slavery War.

The deal made between the Republican and Democrat party led to the law that ended Federal protection for Black Americans in the South.


Posse Comitatus - p.190 Section 15

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Hough Riots

Cleveland, Ohio - The Seventy-Niner's Café was the location of the most violent race riot in Cleveland history.

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Kerner Commission Formed

Washington, D. C. - The Kerner Commission was formed. President Lyndon Baines Johnson issued Executive Order 11365. Johnson wanted to know what made Black Americans riot and how to prevent it.

The commission was created during the Detroit uprising. Johnson chose 11 whites and two (2) Black Americans. Three (3) questions were to be answered.

'What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?'

On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Report was completed. The Report stated, 'Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal.'

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Timothy Thomas Killed By Police

Cincinnati, Ohio - Cincinnati police worker Stephen Roach killed Timothy Thomas. The night Thomas was killed, nine police workers chased him, on foot. They had an arrest warrent, with his name on it, for minor infractions. Almost all were for driving without a license and not wearing a seat belt.

During the foot chase, Thomas turned a corner, into a dark alley. Stephen Roach was in the alley and saw Thomas. As Thomas reached to pull up his pants, Roach shot Thomas in the chest, at close range. Thomas died on the way to the hospital. At the time of his death, Thomas was 19 years of age.

Roach was tried and cleared of the killing of Thomas. This shooting led to the most violent riot, in the United States, that year.


Police Killed Timothy Thomas

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2001 Cincinnati Riots

Cincinnati, Ohio - The killing of Timothy Thomas by a white Cincinnati police worker, Stephen Roach, led to 3 days of rioting.

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John Crawford III Killed By Police

Beavercreek, Ohio - Sean Williams killed John Crawford, III. Williams, a white male, worked for the Beavercreek Police Department. Crawford was killed as he shopped in a Walmart.

Crawford picked up a bb gun, off a shelf, in a Walmart store. As Crawford carried it, he talked on his phone. Ronald Ritchie, a white male, called the police, and said Crawford aimed the harmless item at people in the store. Video footage showed Ritchie had lied. Ritchie later admitted he lied.

In response, Williams entered the Walmart store and shot and killed Crawford. As customers fled the shooting, a woman died of a heart attack.

Neither Ritchie nor Williams were tried for any crimes that led to the two (2) deaths.

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Tamir Rice Killed By Police

Cleveland, Ohio - Tamir Rice was killed by Timothy Loehmann (pictured left), a Cleveland police worker. Tamir Rice was a 12 year-old Black American boy. Loehmann was a 26 year-old, white male.

Saturday, November 22nd, 2014, a 911 call was made about a boy that pointed a pistol at random people. The caller was at a city park at a nearby gazebo. The caller said the gun was probably fake.

The 911 dispatcher asked the caller three times, if Rice was Black American or white. The caller described what Rice wore. The dispatcher refused to send police until the caller gave Tamir's race.

The caller left the gazebo. Later, Rice sat on a bench, under the gazebo, alone.

Around 3:30 p.m., Rice left the bench and began to leave the gazebo. The Cleveland police, Loehmann and Frank Garmback drove on the grass at Rice.

As the police car stopped, Loehmann got out of the car and shot Rice twice. The entire encounter took less than two (2) seconds. Rice collapsed to the ground immediately.

Two minutes later, the police arrested Rice's 14 year-od sister as she ran toward her fallen brother. As Rice laid on the ground, and suffered from the gunshot wounds, the Cleveland police gave no aid.

Later that day, Cleveland Deputy Chief Tomba said 'the child did not threaten the officer verbally or physically.'

On November 26th, Rice died at MetroHealth Medical Center. The cause of death was a gunshot wound to the chest, with major internal damage.

Loehmann was not charged with the murder of Rice. In 2017, Loehmann was fired from the Cleveland Police Department.

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