Paris, France - This agreement transferred all claims of Napoleon and the French government, for the Louisiana Territory, to the United States.
Napoleon lacked the force to hold the area. The United States wanted it to expand slavery. Napoleon tried one last time to stay in the Americas. He sent armies to Louisiana and Haiti.
The army sent to Haiti was defeated. So, Napoleon re-routed the Louisiana army to Haiti. It failed, too.
The United States sent a delegation to Paris, France. They were to make an offer for the Louisiana Territory. The delegation was surprised when the French offered it to them, first.
A deal was quickly arranged. The deal was signed and the document arrived in Washington, D. C. (July 14th, 1803).
From that deal, the Mississippi Valley area was opened to the United States. This territory doubled the size of the United States. It opened a vast new area to enslave black people.
The agreement never recognized the claims of non-whites that already lived in the area (tribal peoples). It greatly expanded the internal slave trade.
Washington, D. C. - This executive order began the end of slavery, in the United States. While not a law, it had Presidential force behind it. The Proclamation removed legal enforcement and protection for slavery.
The Emancipation Proclamation only applied to States in open rebellion. It did not make slavery a crime, in the United States. On September 22, 1862, Abraham Lincoln issued it. This was five (5) days after Antietam (i.e. the Battle of Sharpsburg).
Washington, D. C. - Abraham Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth. Lincoln was regarded as the greatest President in United States history. He helped win the American Slavery War (Civil War), ended chattel slavery, and united the nation.
Abraham Lincoln was murdered at Ford's Theater. He was shot in the back of the head, while watching a play. His murderer, Booth, was a pro-slavery supporter.
Booth was tracked and found. On April 26, 1865, Booth was shot dead.
Galveston, Texas - General Order Number 3 was read. It was from the Emancipation Proclamation. This began the end of chattel slavery in Texas.
The Proclamation withdrew legal support for slavery. It was limited to the Confederacy. Those who were loyal to the Union, were compensated for any people the government freed. It was not a law. It was similar to a military order.
Chattel slavery was not officially abolished until the (13th) Thirteenth Amendment went into effect. That was six months later, on December 6th, 1865.
In June 1866, Juneteenth began. It is the oldest celebration of the end of chattel slavery, in the world.
Vicksburg, Mississippi - Whites killed dozens (possibly hundreds) of black people to remove a black man as sheriff, Peter Crosby.
No white was prosecuted, investigated, nor punished.
Daily Alta California, Volume 26, Number 9029, 21 December 1874
1874 Vicksburg Massacre News Article
1874 Vicksburg Massacre
Monroe, North Carolina - Robert F. Williams was born. He was pro-gun, for self-defense, in the Black Rights (Civil Rights) era. He wanted black women armed, for self-protection.
Williams was for violent resistance to white terrorism and injustice. Many black Americans were moved by his work. Huey P. Newton, of the Black Panthers, gave credit to Williams for this.
The National Rifle Association (NRA) gave Williams a charter. He used it to form a rifle club. It was to protect black Americans, in Monroe, North Carolina, from violence. White vigilantes and the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) were the primary threats.
Washington, D. C. - The 'Prohibition of Discrimination in the Defense Industry' was signed. It was Executive Order 8802.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued this order. It was meant to stop a planned march on Washington, by black people. The march was planned for the following week.
A. Phillip Randolph planned the March on Washington Movement (MOWM), for July 1st, 1941. 100,000 black people were to attend. After Order 8802 was issued, Randolph stopped the march.
The Order said racial bias was not allowed in the war business. It had little power. On May 27th, 1943, Executive Order 9346 replaced Order 8802 and 8823, with much more Presidential power.
New York, New York - With respect to the chickens coming home to roost, Malcolm X’s full statement was never published.
On December 1st, 1963, Malcolm X spoke, at his talk, to a person in the audience. It was titled, 'God’s Judgment of White America.'
The next day the New York Times printed an article on the talk. The headline was 'Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy'. It quoted Malcolm X. The story read, 'Kennedy twiddled his thumbs at the killing of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.'
The article added that Malcolm X said, JFK 'never foresaw that the chickens would come to roost so soon.' JFK had been killed nine (9) days before, on November 22nd, 1963.
Washington, D. C. - Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. met for only one time. It was at the U. S. Capitol. They attended a filibuster of the 1964 Civil Rights bill.
On Thursday morning, it was in the low 70s, and partly cloudy. Malcom X flew from New York. He came and sat in the visitors' gallery, in the Senate. King was in the gallery, on the far end.
Later a press conference was held. As it ended, King and Malcolm X went through separate doors. It is speculated James 67X, made sure they ran into each other.
King offered to shake Malcolm X's hand. As they shook hands, Malcolm X said, 'Now you’re going to get investigated.' Both smiled.
Washington, D. C. - The Moynihan Report ('The Report') was released. It was written by Daniel Patrick Moynihan. He studied the plight of black Americans, in the United States.
Moynihan was Assistant Secretary of Labor for Policy, Planning and Research. He served from 1963 to 1965. This period covered the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson eras.
His work during this period, was used by President Johnson, in his War on Poverty. At the same time, it was used as a pretext to send black youth to the Vietnam War. At the time it was released, there was major unrest in the South, over black voting rights.
The Report stated the black family was at fault, for its poverty. It made family failure the cause of black dysfunction. It blamed single mothers and absent fathers as the root cause.
In 1971, 'Blame the Victim' was published. It showed the Moynihan Report to be self-serving and simple-minded. The Report ignored racism and bigotry as causes. It instead relied on the 'cultural deprivation' fallacy. 'Blame The Victim' also called this, Savage Discovery.
Selma, Alabama - A third Selma march began. It was to end in Montgomery, the state capitol.. It began at Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church. Thousands began the march.
Unlike the earlier Selma marches, the march itself was peaceful. It had the support of President Johnson and military protection. More than 20,000 took part.
After the march, Viola Liuzzo was killed, by the KKK. She came from Detroit to join the march. As she and a black teenager drove marchers back to Selma, the KKK shot, into the car.
Liuzzo was killed by the gunfire. Le Roy Moton, who was in the car with her, was unharmed. He was nineteen (19) years of age. This helped push whites to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.
Greenwood, Mississippi - Stokely Carmichael said 'We want Black Power.' This was the first use of the term in a political movement.
The phrase was used for many years before Carmichael. Richard Wright wrote a book called 'Black Power' in 1954. On May 29, 1966, Congressman Adam Clayton Powell used the phrase, in a speech, at Harvard.
Carmichael was part of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He was elected chairman, May, 1966. His election showed that integration of SNCC, with whites, was not wanted.
To make the point plain, Carmichael said 'Black Power' at a voting rights rally. He said this in Mississippi, where a number of civil rights workers had been killed, by whites.
New York, New York - Project 100,000 was revealed in a speech. It was created by Robert Strange McNamara. The Project sent tens of thousands of young, black men to Vietnam.
McNamara was the Secretary of Defense. He served from 1961-1968. This included both United States Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy.
McNamara wanted to expand the military in Vietnam. The United States military lacked the manpower. McNamara's solution was young, black men.
In 1963, under Kennedy, McNamara increased the military in Vietnam, from 900 to 16,000. Kennedy had problems with black people who fought for Civil Rights. McNamara had a plan to solve the 'black problem' and Vietnam.
November 22, 1963, Kennedy was killed. McNamara kept his job under Johnson. Johnson faced the same 'black problem' as Kennedy. But, it was an election year. Johnson wanted nothing to hurt his campaign.
In 1964, McNamara tried a limited military program to target black men and Vietnam. It was the Special Training Enlistment Program (STEP). It reduced entry standards to get an extra 15,000 men into the military.
Congress rejected the STEP program. Funding was denied. It was called pointless. STEP used the military to replace existing jobs and education programs.
President Johnson won the election. With Johnson's full support, McNamara expanded his plans to send young, black men into Vietnam.
In 1965, once again, Congress denied McNamara funding. Undersecretary of Defense Alfred Fitt said McNamara was furious. McNamara continued without funding.
April, 1966, McNamara reduced the standard to enter the military. The score, for entry, was lowered on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT).
Tuesday, August 23, 1966, McNamara announced Project 100,000. It was at a speech in front of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. It was before Congress came back from recess.
By 1972, when Project 100,000 closed, more than 340,000 extra men were sent to Vietnam.
Adam Clayton Powell denounced the actions of Johnson and McNamara. He called them, Hitler-ish. Martin Luther King, Jr. condemned the Vietnam War. It was at a speech in New York called, 'Beyond Vietnam.' Muhammad Ali said the Vietnam War was started to get him.
New York, New York - Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a speech called 'Beyond Vietnam' at Riverside Church. King spoke as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was before a crowd of 3,000 people.
King said, 'Stop all bombing of North and South Vietnam. Declare a unilateral truce. I hope it would lead to peace talks. Set a date for withdrawal of all troops from Vietnam. Give the National Liberation Front a role in negotiations.'
The speech was condemned by 168 newspapers across the country. Senator Barry Goldwater (Arizona) said it 'could border a bit on treason.' President Lyndon Baines Johnson immediately ended King's access to the White House.
Washington, D. C. - The Kerner Commission was formed. President Lyndon Baines Johnson issued Executive Order 11365. Johnson wanted to know what made black people riot and how to prevent it.
The commission was created during the Detroit uprising. Johnson chose 11 whites and two (2) black people. Three (3) questions were to be answered.
'What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?'
On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Report was completed. The Report stated, 'Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal.'
Washington, D. C. - The President’s National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders wrote the Kerner Report.
On July 28, 1967, the Detroit uprising caused President Lyndon Baines Johnson to form the commission. It was led by Governor Otto Kerner, of Ohio. The report took his name.
The report gave a cause for the black uprisings in the country. There were more than 150 riots or major disorders between 1965 and 1968. 83 people killed and 1,800 injured, and most were black. $100 million in property was damaged or destroyed.
The 426-page report named “white racism” for the violence, not a conspiracy by black political groups.
Washington, D. C. - President Richard Nixon announced the health maintenance organization (HMO). These schemes were used to limit access to health care to black people. As HMOs spread and grew in size, health care access in the United States declined.
50 years later, the United States had one of the least effective and most expensive health care systems in the world. Many Americans went broke from unpaid medical bills.
Nixon Starts HMOs
Washington, D. C. - At a press conference, President Richard Nixon spoke on what became the 'War on Drugs.' The phrase was not used during the speech. It was created in news media reports later. Nixon said drug use was 'public enemy number one.'
A member of the Nixon White House said who the 'War' was really to defeat. John Ehrlichman was the White House Domestic Affairs Advisor. He came after Daniel P. Moynihan, of the Moynihan Report. In his role, Ehrlichman helped Nixon deal with the black problem, as they saw it.
Ehrlichman made these statements. 'The Nixon campaign in 1968, and the Nixon White House after that, had two enemies: the antiwar left and black people. You understand what I’m saying? We knew we couldn’t make it illegal to be either against the war or black, but by getting the public to associate the hippies with marijuana and blacks with heroin, and then criminalizing both heavily, we could disrupt those communities. We could arrest their leaders, raid their homes, break up their meetings, and vilify them night after night on the evening news. Did we know we were lying about the drugs? Of course we did.'
July 17, 1971 Nixon Press Conference
Ehrlichman Statement about the 'War on Drugs'
Washington, D. C. - Nixon's Attorney General, John Mitchell, gave a speech that announced the 'War on Crime.' This was the last piece in Nixon's plan to attack black people in the United States. The first was the HMO, to limit access to health care. The second was the 'War on Drugs.'
The speech that started the 'War on Crime' was given at the Conference on Crime Reduction. It used Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) crime statistics. FBI crime counting often under-reported crime in white areas and over-reported it in black areas. This data was used to add funding for police and other punitive acts against black people.
War on Crime
Washington, D. C. - Gerald Ford was the first United States President to recognize February was Black History Month. Every year since, every President has confirmed this tradition.
Black History Month
Washington, D. C. - President Ronald Reagan declared the 'War on Drugs' at the Justice Department. This was the second time the United States government made drugs a policy focus. The first time was by President Richard Nixon, in 1971.
Reagan made his 'drugs' speech years before the crack cocaine hysteria of the 1980s. It came before the mass incarceration law that Reagan signed, in 1984. By the time crack cocaine appeared, all the pieces were in place to wage a legal, civil war against black people. Over the next 20 years, prison rates of young, black men exploded.
Reagan's Drug War
Boston, Massachusetts - Charles Stuart killed his wife and blamed a black man for it. Stuart, and his wife Carol, were white. After a pregnancy class, he claimed he drove through Roxbury, a black area of Boston.
At a stoplight, he said a black man forced his way in the car. Stuart said the black man told them to drive to Mission Hill. It was nearby. There, Stuart said the black man robbed them. Stuart said the black man shot him in the stomach and his wife in the head.
Carol died hours after the shooting. The baby was born premature. His name was Christopher. He died seventeen (17) days later. Stuart was in the hospital for weeks after the shooting.
The story made national headlines. Boston police workers used stop-and-frisk on many innocent black men, on the word of Stuart. William Bennett, a black man, was jailed by the Boston Police, in the search for the killer.
On December 28, 1989, Stuart said Bennett shot him and his wife. On January 3, 1990, Matthew, the brother of Charles, told the police it was all a lie. Matthew said it was an insurance scam. He had met Charles that night. There, he told Matthew he killed his wife.
On January 4, 1990, Charles Stuart jumped off the Tobin Bridge in Chelsea, Massachusetts. His body was found the next day.
Washington, D. C. - Future President, Joe Biden, made comments for what became the 1994 Crime Bill. This was the last new bill of the Mass Incarceration era.
Biden called Americans 'predators' and wanted them in jail. He called them criminals and single mothers and disadvantaged. He used all the racial code words of the Reagan and Nixon eras. Biden made it clear the police and sheriffs wanted this bill. Black people who were the targets of the bill were not asked about it, before it was written.
This Crime Bill sent hundreds of thousands of black men to jail, for non-violent drug crimes. It exploded jail and prison numbers. The cost, in public funds, was hundreds of billions of dollars.
Joe Biden Crime Bill
Keene, New Hampshire - Hillary Clinton, then First Lady, called American youth, super predators. The comment was made with regard to drugs and crime. Clinton stated a new Crime Law had passed in 1994. She said the effort was anti-crime, anti-drugs, and anti-gang.
All of Clinton's comments were made against black people. Since Nixon, crime fighting meant sending more police at black people. Fighting drugs meant more jail for black people. Fighting gangs meant using black youth as targets.
After decades of policy to link crime, gangs, and drugs with black youth, Clinton made the connections in one address.
To this day, these comments have followed her.
Hillary Clinton Super Predators