Black History Month 2022

revolt

1811 German Coast Uprising



Louisiana - Qumana and Harry, with Charles Deslondes, led the largest slave revolt, in United States history. It began on the eastern bank of the Mississippi River, in Louisiana.

On Tuesday evening, January 8th, 1811, the slave uprising moved downriver to New Orleans. They marched on River Road. The plan was to raid New Orleans, and end slavery.

500 people joined the march to New Orleans. But, before their goal was reached, the local militia stopped them.

Half the total deaths (about 40) were from the militia. Another 55 were executed. About 100 escaped. The rest were returned to bondage (slavery).

Charles Deslondes, a 'free' man, was executed by the militia. He was burned alive.

Nat Turner Uprising Began



Southampton (likely), Virginia - Nat Turner began an uprising against whites. Not much was recorded about the incident, at the time.

It is believed more than 55 whites died as a result. The uprising was stopped. Turner was caught after six (6) weeks in hiding. He and 16 of his followers were hanged, in Jerusalem, Virginia.

John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry



Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia) - On Sunday night, John Brown, and his party, seized the Federal armory, in Harper's Ferry. It had a substantial arms supply. At least 20 men took part in the raid. Most were white men.

Sundary, October 16th, 11 p.m., Brown began his raid. It started well. They freed a number of slaves and cut the telegraph lines into the town. The group ran into Heyward Shepherd, a 'free' black man. He was a baggage handler for the railroad.

Heyward was told to stop. Instead, he headed back to the station. Brown's men shot him in the back. Pro-slavers regarded Heyward as a hero.

A white doctor heard the gunshot. He came to see what happened. Brown saw the doctor and let him leave. After the doctor left, he raised an alarm. Church bells were rung in the town. Later, he went to another town to tell of the raid.

Brown sent men to get help from nearby plantations. He wanted black men. Only a handful joined. With his group, Brown took at least 60 hostages, in town. The 10 most important were kept in the engine house, of the railroad.

Monday, October 17th, 1:15 a.m., the evening train was stopped. It was held for five (5) hours. Brown went on the train. He talked with passengers for an hour. The passengers were allowed into town to stay at a hotel.

At 7 a.m., the train got to the first telegraph. At 10:30 a.m., the military was sent word of Brown's raid.

Between 11 a.m. and evening, local militia units formed. Several companies of men arrived in Harper's Ferry. Most were drunk and disorderly. There was enough control to surround Brown's men.

The militia killed Dangerfield Newby. He was an ex-slave in Brown's group. Newby's corpse was mutilated, by the militia. His testicles and ears were cut off. The militia kept them as souvenirs.

By the time the military arrived, most of the hostages were freed. Brown only held about 10. They were held in the engine house, of the railroad.

On Tuesday, October 18th, the raid ended. Colonel Robert E. Lee and the military captured Brown.

On December 2nd, 1859, John Brown was hanged. Shields Green, who escaped slavery, and the 'free' man, John Copeland, were hanged. John Brown's wife was allowed to take his body back to New York. The bodies of the two black men were sold to white medical students.

Vicksburg Massacre



Vicksburg, Mississippi - Whites killed dozens (possibly hundreds) of black people to remove a black man as sheriff, Peter Crosby.

No white was prosecuted, investigated, nor punished.

Source:

Daily Alta California, Volume 26, Number 9029, 21 December 1874

1874 Vicksburg Massacre News Article

1874 Vicksburg Massacre

Wilmington Massacre of 1898



Wilmington, North Carolina - Thousands of white males murdered and overthrew the elected, black government of Wilmington.

First Aerial Bombing



Tulsa, Oklahoma - Whites made airstrikes against black people. This was the second day of The Tulsa Race Riots.

Early Wednesday morning, whites flew airplanes over the Greenwood District of Tulsa. From the air, whites shot rifles and made aerial bombing runs against black people.

The bombs landed on buildings and homes. The bombers aimed at fleeing families. The aircraft was privately owned. Police participated. The police claimed it was to prevent a 'Negro uprising' in the town.

One witness made this report. There were 'a dozen or more' planes. They circled the neighborhood. The planes dropped 'burning turpentine balls' on an office building, a hotel, a filling station and other buildings. Men fired at black people. They were gunned down in the street.

This was the first aerial bombing in the United States.

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