Black History Month 2023

1876 1877-1881 1882

18 Ulysses S. Grant | 19 Rutherford B. Hayes | 20 James A. Garfield

Reconstruction Redemption Jim Crow


United States - Whites tired of seeing the progress of Black Americans. This period was the backlash against those gains. It slowly reversed much of the work that was done, after the Slavery War, to protect the newly freed.


June 18, 1878
Federal Protection for Black Americans Ended

Washington, D. C. - Posse Comitatus was passed which ended Federal protection for Black Americans in the South. It was a result of the compromise of 1877, that gave Rutherford B. Hayes the presidency. Hayes signed the law.

The Reconstruction Acts and Enforcement Acts were passed to protect the rights of Black Americans, from traitorous whites, in the South. President Ulysses S. Grant used the military to enforce the law and uphold the Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Fifteenth Amendments.

Black people were attacked and killed for voting, assembling, and holding office, by whites. President Ulysses S. Grant used the Army to protect the rights of Black Americans, in the South. Yet, Grant gave up on Black Americans to help the Republican party in Ohio, in 1875.

The governor of Ohio, that won the election, in 1875, was Rutherford B. Hayes. From that point, the Republicans made a further deal to sacrifice Black Americans in the 1876 Presidential election. It made Rutherford B. Hayes the first Democrat elected since the Slavery War.

The deal made between the Republican and Democrat party led to the law that ended Federal protection for Black Americans in the South.


July 4, 1881
Tuskegee University Founded

Tuskegee, Alabama - Tuskegee University began as the Tuskegee Normal School for Colored Teachers. It came from an agreement between a former Confederate Colonel, W.F. Foster, and a local Black American leader, Lewis Adams.

Foster sought to keep his office, in the 1880 election. He promised Adams a school for Black Americans, if he helped him get votes.

Adams delivered. Foster kept his promise. The State of Alabama passed a law for what would become Tuskegee University.

George W. Campbell, a former slave owner, recruited Booker T. Washington as principal. Washington held that position from July 4, 1881 until he died, in 1915.