Black History Month 2022

1962 1963-1969 1970

35 John F. Kennedy | 36 Lyndon B. Johnson | 37 Richard M. Nixon

Redemption Jim Crow Black Power

1896-1965
Jim Crow



United States - The system of legal racial segregation lasted until 1965. In theory, non-whites were to have the same access and services as whites. In law and in practice, whites gave themselves prvileges over non-whites in every area of public life. Black Americans were harmed the most, since they were the direct target of Jim Crow laws.

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1941-1970
Second Great Migration



United States - Hundreds of thousands of Black Americans moved from the South, due to war and the post-War boom.

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April 3-May 10, 1963
Birmingham Black Rights Campaign



Birmingham, Alabama - The Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) planned protests of racial segregation. These protests were led by Martin Luther King, James Bevel, and Fred Shuttlesworth. King called Birmingham the most segregated city in the country.

As the protests continued, volunteers ran low. It was decided to include children. They came from elementary, middle, and high school.

The Commissioner of Public Safety, Eugene 'Bull' Connor acted against the children. Connor sent high pressure water hoses and attack dogs at the children. Hundreds of children and adults were arrested.

40% of Birmingham's population were Black Americans. Yet, none worked for the Birmingham Police Department.

Images of this period showed the harsh brutality of segregation in the South. Whites attacked defenseless and huddled children, because of skin color. The children were no threat to anyone.

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May 11, 1963
Birmingham May Bombings of 1963



Birmingham, Alabama - Bombs exploded at the home of A. D. King (Martin Luther King's brother), and under the room where Martin Luther King had stayed the previous nights.

The first bomb was placed by a uniformed police worker. He drove a marked police car to the home of A. D. King. There he placed a bomb near the porch. The second was thrown at Room 30, of the Gaston Motel.

There was a month-long protest in Birmingham, for racial justice. Finally, local white Birmingham politicians and bureaucrats agreed to concessions. On Friday, May 10th, they agreed to limit racial discrimination and lessen segregation.

In response, on Saturday, May 11th, a white supremacist rally was called outside Birmingham, in Bessemer, Alabama. That evening, at 10:45 p.m., a bomb exploded at A. D. King's home, planted by the Birmingham police.

Just before midnight, at 11:58 p.m., the bomb exploded at the Gaston Hotel. The explosion could be heard across town.

Later, President John F. Kennedy remarked, 'the people who've gotten out of hand are not the white people, but the Negroes by and large.' On this basis, Kennedy called on the military to enter Birmingham.

No deaths or injuries were caused by the explosive devices (bombs). Martin Luther King had left earlier, to go to Atlanta.

The guest, in the room below King's, slept elsewhere. He had planned to sleep there, to get a break from the meetings at his house. But, fatigue forced him to sleep at home.

The bomb at the home of A. D. King did not do enough damage to cause injury. No one was prosecuted for the bombings.

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June 12, 1963
Medger Evers Killed



Jackson, Mississippi - Medger Evers was murdered, at his home. The murderer, Byron De La Beckwith, was tried and convicted.

Early Wednesday morning, Medger Evers returned home to his waiting wife and children. Evers got out of his car. He carried T-shirts that read 'Jim Crow Must Go' in his hands. There, he was shot in the back, from an Enfield 1917 rifle. The bullet struck the 37 year-old Evers through his heart.

After the shot, Evers staggered 30 feet, to the front door of his house. There he collapsed. His wife, Myrtle, found him there.

Evers was taken to the local hospital. He was refused entry, because he was a Black American man. His family explained who he was and the hospital admitted him. Evers was in the hospital for 50 minutes, and died.

On June 19th, 1963, Evers was buried in Arlington National Cemetery. Martin Luther King, Jr. was in the funeral procession. Evers' funeral got full military honors.

Myrtle Evers fought to get the murderer convicted. On February 5th, 1994, Byron De La Beckwith was convicted of Evers' murder. It took 30 years, but Evers' murderer was sent to prison. Beckwith died in prison on Jaunary 21st, 2001.

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August 28, 1963
'I Have A Dream' Speech Given



Washington, D. C. - At the March on Washington, Martin Luther King, Jr. spoke to the crowd. It was his 'I Have A Dream' speech.

The event was formally known as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. It took place at the National Mall. 250,000 attended.

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August 30, 1963
Martin Luther King Targeted By FBI



Washington, D. C. - J. Edgar Hoover was alarmed by the success of the March on Washington. Martin Luther King, Jr. was seen as a communist threat by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI).

Hoover had been Director of the FBI since 1924 (39 years). He saw King as a threat to national security. The Soviets (Russians) used the plight of Black Americans for diplomacy. They used lynching and segregation to expose American freedom and democracy.

In a comment, Hoover made these comments. 'I for one can't ignore the memos re King, [words redacted] et al as having only an infinitesimal effect on the efforts to exploit the American Negro by the Communists.'

W. C. Sullivan, of the FBI released a memo, after King's speech of two days before.

'Personally, I believe in the light of King's powerful demagogic speech yesterday he stands head and shoulders over all other Negro leaders put together when it comes to influencing great masses of Negroes. We must mark him now, if we have not done so before, as the most dangerous Negro of the future in this Nation from the standpoint of communism, the Negro and national security.'

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September 15, 1963
Birmingham Church Bombing



Birmingham, Alabama - Four white males killed four (4) Black American girls in church. A bomb was placed at the 16th Street Baptist Church. More than a dozen people were injured. The only deaths were the children.

The victims were Addie Mae Collins, Carole Robertson, Cynthia Wesley, and Denise McNair. The bombers were in the Ku Klux Klan. They were Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr., Herman Frank Cash, Robert Edward Chambliss, and Bobby Frank Cherry.

On Sunday morning, the four (4) planted 15 sticks of dynamite at the church. The sticks were placed under the church steps, with a time delay. This was near the church basement.

About 10:22 a.m., there were five (5) children in the basement bathroom. They wore their best Sunday clothes. They changed into choir robes for the Sunday sermon.

The phone rang. The acting Sunday School secretary answered. She was Carolyn Maull, a 14-year-old girl. She heard the words, 'Three minutes.'

Less than a minute later, the bomb exploded. It threw the girls' bodies through the air like rag dolls. The explosion blew a 7-foot hole in the rear wall. A passing driver was blown out of his car. Several parked cars next to the church were destroyed.

Four of the girls were killed. The fifth was Susan Collins. She was the sister of Addie Mae. Susan was permanently blinded by the blast.

In 1977, Robert Chambliss was convicted for one of the murders. He was sent to jail for the murder of 11-year-old Carol Denise McNair.

In 2001, Thomas Edwin Blanton Jr. was convicted of all four (4) murders. He got life in prison.

In 2002, Bobby Cherry was convicted of all four (4) murders. He got life in prison.

Herman Cash died in 1994. He was never tried.

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December 1, 1963
'Chickens coming home to roost'



New York, New York - With respect to the chickens coming home to roost, Malcolm X’s full statement was never published.

On December 1st, 1963, Malcolm X spoke, at his talk, to a person in the audience. It was titled, 'God’s Judgment of White America.'

The next day the New York Times printed an article on the talk. The headline was 'Malcolm X Scores U.S. and Kennedy'. It quoted Malcolm X. The story read, 'Kennedy twiddled his thumbs at the killing of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother Ngo Dinh Nhu.'

The article added that Malcolm X said, JFK 'never foresaw that the chickens would come to roost so soon.' JFK had been killed nine (9) days before, on November 22nd, 1963.

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March 8, 1964
Malcolm X Left Nation of Islam



New York, New York - At a press conference, Malcolm X made a formal statement that he left the Nation of Islam. He changed his position from Black separatism to Black nationalism.

In his remarks, he was open to cooperation with civil rights groups. This included those in the southern states. Malcolm X said he was still a Muslim.

Thursday, March 12, 1964, in a press conference, Malcolm X expanded on his future plans. It was called, 'A Declaration of Independence.'

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March 26, 1964
Martin Luther King and Malcom X Met



Washington, D. C. - Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. met for only one time. It was at the U. S. Capitol. They attended a filibuster of the 1964 Civil Rights bill.

On Thursday morning, it was in the low 70s, and partly cloudy. Malcom X flew from New York. He came and sat in the visitors' gallery, in the Senate. King was in the gallery, on the far end.

Later a press conference was held. As it ended, King and Malcolm X went through separate doors. It is speculated James 67X, made sure they ran into each other.

King offered to shake Malcolm X's hand. As they shook hands, Malcolm X said, 'Now you’re going to get investigated.' Both smiled.

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July 16-22, 1964
1964 Harlem Riot



Harlem, New York - The Harlem riot lasted 6 days and spread to Brooklyn. It began after a white New York police worker killed a Black American teenager.

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August 28, 1964
1964 Philadelphia Race Riot



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - 3 days of burning, violence, and disorder started with a traffic dispute. Two died in the violence. There were hundreds of injuries, arrests, and stores damaged.

At 9:35 p.m., Friday, police workers Robert Wells (Black American) and John Hoff (white) went to a domestic dispute. It began at the corner of 22nd Street and Columbia Avenue.

Odessa Bradford stopped the car as she argued with Rush, her husband. She refused to move out of the intersection. The cops tried to grab her from the car. A large crowd gathered.

A man tried to help Odessa. Both were arrested. The crowd threw bricks and other debris at the police. Rumor spread that a white cop had beaten and killed a pregnant, Black American woman. This fed the disorder.

The minor incident turned into total chaos. North Philadelphia was in turmoil for days.

In response, SWAT (Special Weapons Assault Teams) was formed. These police assault teams became Special Response Teams (SRT), in many cities.

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September, 1964
SWAT Created



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Special Weapons Assault Teams (SWAT) was created. It was formed as a reaction to the uprising of Black Americans, the previous month. This ultra-violent police squad became Special Response Teams (SRT).

SWAT used military tactics to attack and contain Black Americans. This included men, women, children, the elderly, and the disabled. It was most used during the War on Drugs, which began in 1981 and continued into the 2020s.

SWAT was used in routine drug raids on homes. These raids came with no warning to the people inside the house. Tear gas, flash bang grenades, and heavily armed, and armored employees were used in these raids.

SWAT raids became so common, the term 'SWATTING' came into use. SWATTING was a trick, though a very dangerous one. An anonymous caller told the police there were drugs in a target house (or some other type of unlawful activity). Without any evidence, the police sent SWAT to assault the home and the people inside.

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December 10, 1964
Martin Luther King Got Nobel Peace Prize



Oslo, Norway - Martin Luther King Jr. received his Nobel Prize. The award event was held in the hall of the University of Oslo.

Mr. Jahn, Chairman of the Nobel Committee, gave the prize to King.

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December 11, 1964
Sam Cooke Killed



Los Angeles, California - Sam Cooke was shot to death. Cooke wrote and sang 'A Change Is Gonna Come' among many other popular songs. His friends included Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, and Jim Brown (football).

Cooke was respected for his activism for Black Rights (see Civil Rights). He refused to perform at segregated events.

Mrs. Bertha Franklin shot Cooke in the chest. It pierced Cooke's heart and killed him. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) quickly ruled the murder a 'justifiable homicide.'

Mrs. Franklin was never charged with Cooke's murder.

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February 18, 1965
First Selma March Began



Selma, Alabama - Reverend C.T. Vivian led the first Selma march. It was to end at the courthouse in Marion, Alabama. The march protested the arrest of James Orange. He was a member of the Dallas County Voters League (DCVL).

In Marion, Alabama state troopers attacked the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson was shot by white police. Jackson was shot as he tried to protect his mother and grandfather from the police.

Jackson was denied medical care in Marion. He was moved twenty (20) miles to the Good Samaritan Hospital in Selma. On February 26th, Jackson died, in the hospital.

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February 21, 1965 2 P.M.
Malcolm X Killed



Harlem, New York - On Sunday, Malcolm X (or el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz) was assassinated. It took place in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom (66th Street & Broadway). He was there to speak to the Organization for Afro-American Unity.

Malcolm X stood on the stage, faced the audience, and greeted those in attendance. After the greeting, someone in the 400-person audience yelled, 'Get your hand outta my pocket!'

Malcolm X, with his bodyguards, attempted to restore peace to the event. As Malcolm X stood on stage, a man, with a sawed-off shotgun, rushed the stage. The gunman shot Malcolm X one time in the chest. This killed Malcolm X.

With Malcolm X on his back, two other men charged the stage. Each fired a semi-automatic handgun at the body of Malcolm X. At 3:30 p.m., Columbia Presbyterian Hospital pronounced the death of Malcolm X.

Malcolm X was shot 21 times to the chest, left shoulder, arms and legs. This included ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast. The man who shot first was never identified, nor prosecuted.

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February 21, 1965 2 P.M.
Malcolm X Killed



Harlem, New York - On Sunday, Malcolm X (or el-Hajj Malik el-Shabazz) was assassinated. It took place in Manhattan's Audubon Ballroom (66th Street & Broadway). He was there to speak to the Organization for Afro-American Unity.

Malcolm X stood on the stage, faced the audience, and greeted those in attendance. After the greeting, someone in the 400-person audience yelled, 'Get your hand outta my pocket!'

Malcolm X, with his bodyguards, attempted to restore peace to the event. As Malcolm X stood on stage, a man, with a sawed-off shotgun, rushed the stage. The gunman shot Malcolm X one time in the chest. This killed Malcolm X.

With Malcolm X on his back, two other men charged the stage. Each fired a semi-automatic handgun at the body of Malcolm X. At 3:30 p.m., Columbia Presbyterian Hospital pronounced the death of Malcolm X.

Malcolm X was shot 21 times to the chest, left shoulder, arms and legs. This included ten buckshot wounds from the initial shotgun blast. The man who shot first was never identified, nor prosecuted.

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March 1, 1965
Moynihan Report Released



Washington, D. C. - The Moynihan Report ('The Report') was released. It was written by Daniel Patrick Moynihan. He studied the plight of Black Americans, in the United States.

Moynihan was Assistant Secretary of Labor for Policy, Planning and Research. He served from 1963 to 1965. This period covered the John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson eras.

His work during this period, was used by President Johnson, in his War on Poverty. At the same time, it was used as a pretext to send Black American youth to the Vietnam War. At the time it was released, there was major unrest in the South, over Black American voting rights.

The Report stated the Black American family was at fault, for its poverty. It made family failure the cause of Black American dysfunction. It blamed single mothers and absent fathers as the root cause.

In 1971, 'Blame the Victim' was published. It showed the Moynihan Report to be self-serving and simple-minded. The Report ignored racism and bigotry as causes. It instead relied on the 'cultural deprivation' fallacy. 'Blame The Victim' also called this, Savage Discovery.

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March 7, 1965
Second Selma March



Selma, Alabama - White state troopers and sheriff workers attacked hundreds of Black Civil Rights marchers. The march was to go 54 miles. The route went from Selma to Montgomery, the Alabama state capital.

The march was a protest of a death from the first Selma march. His name was Jimmie Lee Jackson, a young Black American man. The other goal, of the march, was to get Black Americans able to vote.

Over five hundred (500) marched toward the Edmund Pettus Bridge. There Alabama state troopers and sheriff workers waited. Once the marchers reached the other side of the bridge, the Alabama state troopers told them to stop and disperse.

The marchers walked off the bridge and the Alabama troopers and sheriff workers attacked. They used tear gas, batons, kicked, and beat the unarmed marchers. The march was stopped. It never made it out of Selma.

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March 21, 1965
Third Selma March



Selma, Alabama - A third Selma march began. It was to end in Montgomery, the state capitol.. It began at Brown Chapel African Methodist Episcopal Church. Thousands began the march.

Unlike the earlier Selma marches, the march itself was peaceful. It had the support of President Johnson and military protection. More than 20,000 took part.

After the march, Viola Liuzzo was killed, by the KKK. She came from Detroit to join the march. As she and a Black American teenager drove marchers back to Selma, the KKK shot, into the car.

Liuzzo was killed by the gunfire. Le Roy Moton, who was in the car with her, was unharmed. He was nineteen (19) years of age. This helped push whites to pass the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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March 23, 1965
Origin of the Black Panther



Lowndes County, Alabama - The Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO) was formed. It used the black panther for its voter drives. This was an early step toward the Black Power movement, in the United States.

Some call the LCFO the first Black Panther Party since it used the black panther image. The Black Panther comic book character appeared later, July 1, 1966. The Oakland, California Black Panther Party was founded October 15, 1966.

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August 6, 1965
1965 Voting Rights Act Signed



Washington, D. C. - President Lyndon Baines Johnson signed the Voting Rights Act of 1965.

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August 11-16, 1965
Watts Riots Began



Los Angeles, California - The longest, costliest, and most destructive civil disorder of 1965, began in Los Angeles. It lasted five (5) days, until August 16th. It all began from a police stop.

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1966-1968
Black Power



United States - Black Power followed the end of racial segregation. Many younger Black Americans saw this as a chance to gain the same benefits from American prosperity as whites. It was an identity based around a shared experience of oppression and violence, by whites. Their power was to be shown with the removal of legal limits on their ability to produce, and compete.

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May 5, 1966
Planned Parenthood Awarded Martin Luther King



New York, New York - Coretta Scott King, wife of Martin Luther King, accepted the Margaret Sanger Award, on his behalf. She gave an acceptance speech at the award event.

This was seven (7) years before abortion was made legal in the United States. The Supreme Court used the Fourteenth Amendment, in Roe v. Wade, for abortion. Roe, was a fake name, for a white woman.

Margaret Sanger wanted to eliminate Black Americans through a process of family planning. This was designed to limit the birth of Black American babies. Eventually, Planned Parenthood was able to pursue the 'quiet' genocide of abortion, on Black Americans.

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June 16, 1966
Black Power Era Began



Greenwood, Mississippi - Stokely Carmichael said 'We want Black Power.' This was the first use of the term in a political movement.

The phrase was used for many years before Carmichael. Richard Wright wrote a book called 'Black Power' in 1954. On May 29, 1966, Congressman Adam Clayton Powell used the phrase, in a speech, at Harvard.

Carmichael was part of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). He was elected chairman, May, 1966. His election showed that integration of SNCC, with whites, was not wanted.

To make the point plain, Carmichael said 'Black Power' at a voting rights rally. He said this in Mississippi, where a number of civil rights workers had been killed, by whites.

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July 18-23, 1966
Hough Riots



Cleveland, Ohio - The Seventy-Niner's Café was the location of the most violent race riot in Cleveland history.

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August 22, 1966
Project 100,000 Announced



New York, New York - Project 100,000 was revealed in a speech. It was created by Robert Strange McNamara. The Project sent tens of thousands of young, Black American men to Vietnam.

McNamara was the Secretary of Defense. He served from 1961-1968. This included both United States Presidents Lyndon B. Johnson and John F. Kennedy.

McNamara wanted to expand the military in Vietnam. The United States military lacked the manpower. McNamara's solution was young, Black American men.

In 1963, under Kennedy, McNamara increased the military in Vietnam, from 900 to 16,000. Kennedy had problems with Black Americans who fought for Civil Rights. McNamara had a plan to solve the 'Black problem' and Vietnam.

November 22, 1963, Kennedy was killed. McNamara kept his job under Johnson. Johnson faced the same 'Black problem' as Kennedy. But, it was an election year. Johnson wanted nothing to hurt his campaign.

In 1964, McNamara tried a limited military program to target Black American men and Vietnam. It was the Special Training Enlistment Program (STEP). It reduced entry standards to get an extra 15,000 men into the military.

Congress rejected the STEP program. Funding was denied. It was called pointless. STEP used the military to replace existing jobs and education programs.

President Johnson won the election. With Johnson's full support, McNamara expanded his plans to send young, Black American men into Vietnam.

In 1965, once again, Congress denied McNamara funding. Undersecretary of Defense Alfred Fitt said McNamara was furious. McNamara continued without funding.

April, 1966, McNamara reduced the standard to enter the military. The score, for entry, was lowered on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT).

Tuesday, August 23, 1966, McNamara announced Project 100,000. It was at a speech in front of the Veterans of Foreign Wars. It was before Congress came back from recess.

By 1972, when Project 100,000 closed, more than 340,000 extra men were sent to Vietnam.

Adam Clayton Powell denounced the actions of Johnson and McNamara. He called them, Hitler-ish. Martin Luther King, Jr. condemned the Vietnam War. It was at a speech in New York called, 'Beyond Vietnam.' Muhammad Ali said the Vietnam War was started to get him.

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April 4, 1967
Martin Luther King, Jr. Condemned Vietnam War



New York, New York - Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a speech called 'Beyond Vietnam' at Riverside Church. King spoke as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was before a crowd of 3,000 people.

King said, 'Stop all bombing of North and South Vietnam. Declare a unilateral truce. I hope it would lead to peace talks. Set a date for withdrawal of all troops from Vietnam. Give the National Liberation Front a role in negotiations.'

The speech was condemned by 168 newspapers across the country. Senator Barry Goldwater (Arizona) said it 'could border a bit on treason.' President Lyndon Baines Johnson immediately ended King's access to the White House.

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April 28, 1967
Muhammad Ali Refused Vietnam War



Houston, Texas - Muhammad Ali refused to be inducted to go to the Vietnam War. As a result, the United States government immediately attempted criminal action. The New York State Athletic Commission and the World Boxing Association stripped Ali of his titles, that day.

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July 12-17, 1967
1967 Newark Riot Began



Newark, New Jersey - Black American bystanders began civil unrest after two white (Italian) Newark police workers arrested a Black American man. Up to that point, it was the most violent civil disturbance of 1967.

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July 23-28, 1967
1967 Detroit Riot



Detroit, Michigan - 43 people died in the worst civil unrest of 1967. The Detroit police killed 14. Michigan National Guardsman killed nine (9).

Sunday, July 23rd, 3:45 a.m., Detroit Police workers raided an after-hours club (or blind pig). The raid was at 9125 12th Street, in the office of the the United Community League for Civic Action. It was above the Economy Printing Company.

Inside, 82 people celebrated the return of two (2) from the Vietnam War. The police expected a few people inside, before the raid.

Once the police left, scavenging began. Later, the police returned. At 7 a.m., some were arrested. The crowds grew. It was mixed, Black American and white.

By mid-afternoon, the fires started. The unrest spread across the city. Mayor Jerome Cavanagh said it was 'critical' but not 'out of control.'

At 7:45 p.m., Cavanagh began a curfew. Alcohol and firearms sales were stopped. 80% of the arrests were Black Americans.

July 24th, President Lyndon B. Johnson sent the Army, to Detroit. Johnson used the Insurrection Act of 1807. The Act was meant for enslaved Black Americans.

July 25th, 8,000 Michigan National Guardsmen entered Detroit. They were almost all white. 4,700 paratroopers joined them. They came from the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions.

July 26th, the Guardsmen killed nine (9) people. None were killed by the Army.

July 27th, ammunition was taken from the Guardsmen. The unrest declined. By July 28th, the chaos ended.

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July 28, 1967
Kerner Commission Formed



Washington, D. C. - The Kerner Commission was formed. President Lyndon Baines Johnson issued Executive Order 11365. Johnson wanted to know what made Black Americans riot and how to prevent it.

The commission was created during the Detroit uprising. Johnson chose 11 whites and two (2) Black Americans. Three (3) questions were to be answered.

'What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?'

On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Report was completed. The Report stated, 'Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal.'

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February 28, 1968
Kerner Report Published



Washington, D. C. - The President’s National Advisory Commission on Civil Disorders wrote the Kerner Report.

On July 28, 1967, the Detroit uprising caused President Lyndon Baines Johnson to form the commission. It was led by Governor Otto Kerner, of Ohio. The report took his name.

The report gave a cause for the Black uprisings in the country. There were more than 150 riots or major disorders between 1965 and 1968. 83 people killed and 1,800 injured, and most were Black. $100 million in property was damaged or destroyed.

The 426-page report named “white racism” for the violence, not a conspiracy by Black political groups.

1970 Kerner Report Revised

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April 4, 1968
Martin Luther King, Jr. Killed



Memphis, Tennessee - Martin Luther King Jr. was murdered. King was shot at the Lorraine Hotel, on a Thursday, at 6:01 p.m. A 30-06 rifle was used. Only one shot was fired and it hit King in the throat.

The prior year, King condemned the Vietnam War. President Lyndon Johnson turned his back on King, as a result. The war continued, non-stop. Anti-war demonstrations began to increase, the rest of 1967.

On January 30, 1968, a major attack began against the United States in Vietnam. It was the 'Tet Offensive.' The United States military and President Johnson saw that the enemy had no plan to quit.

On March 28, 1968, the Tet offensive ended. The same day, King arrived in Memphis. King led a march, for Black American sanitation workers. The workers had been on strike since February, 1968.

The marchers walked down Beale street. In the back, store windows were broken. As the marchers turned onto Main street, riot police waited. The police attacked. Riot clubs and tear gas were used. King was led away, safely. Hundreds were arrested. A Black American teenager was killed by police.

On Sunday, March 31, 1968, President Johnson went on television, and spoke for 40 minutes. He began with peace talks for the war. At the end, Johnson said he would not run for re-election.

Four days later, King was killed, in Memphis.

Joseph Louw, a 28 year-old South African, took the photograph just before the murder. Some suspect Louw was there working with the FBI and CIA as surveillance of the Black Rights (civil rights) leader.

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October 16, 1968
Black Fists Raised at Mexico Olympics



Mexico City, Mexico - Tommie Smith (center) and John Carlos (right) each raised a fist at the award podium for the 200m race, at the 1968 Olympic Games.

Smith and Carlos were shoeless on the platform to show their black socks, which represented Black American poverty. Carlos wore a bead necklace to represent lynchings in the United States.

Carlos and Smith raised their gloved hand, when the Star Spangled Banner played, at the awards ceremony and bowed their heads.

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1969-1984
Affirmative Action



United States - Government programs began to open resources and areas, to Black Americans, in limited areas of society.

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June 7, 1969
Youngest American Killed in Vietnam War



West of Hội An, Quảng Nam Province, Vietnam - Dan Bullock was the youngest soldier to die in the Vietnam War. He was a Black American teenager, and only 15 years of age. His rank was private first class in the United States Marines.

Bullock was born December 21, 1953, in Goldsboro, North Carolina. His mother died when he was 12 years of age. He moved to Brooklyn to live with his father. Due to his life in Brooklyn, he joined the military.

On December 10, 1968, Bullock finished army basic training (boot camp). He was 14 years of age.

On May 18, 1969, he was sent to Vietnam. In three (3) weeks, he was killed, while on night watch duty.

Until 2000, there was no marker for his grave. His name appeared on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C. It was placed on Panel 23W, Row 96.

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