Black History Month 2022

1963 1964 1965

35 John F. Kennedy | 36 Lyndon B. Johnson | 37 Richard M. Nixon

Redemption Jim Crow Black Power

March 8, 1964
Malcolm X Left Nation of Islam



New York, New York - At a press conference, Malcolm X made a formal statement that he left the Nation of Islam. He changed his position from Black separatism to Black nationalism.

In his remarks, he was open to cooperation with civil rights groups. This included those in the southern states. Malcolm X said he was still a Muslim.

Thursday, March 12, 1964, in a press conference, Malcolm X expanded on his future plans. It was called, 'A Declaration of Independence.'

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March 26, 1964
Martin Luther King and Malcom X Met



Washington, D. C. - Malcolm X and Martin Luther King, Jr. met for only one time. It was at the U. S. Capitol. They attended a filibuster of the 1964 Civil Rights bill.

On Thursday morning, it was in the low 70s, and partly cloudy. Malcom X flew from New York. He came and sat in the visitors' gallery, in the Senate. King was in the gallery, on the far end.

Later a press conference was held. As it ended, King and Malcolm X went through separate doors. It is speculated James 67X, made sure they ran into each other.

King offered to shake Malcolm X's hand. As they shook hands, Malcolm X said, 'Now you’re going to get investigated.' Both smiled.

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July 16-22, 1964
1964 Harlem Riot



Harlem, New York - The Harlem riot lasted 6 days and spread to Brooklyn. It began after a white New York police worker killed a Black American teenager.

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August 28, 1964
1964 Philadelphia Race Riot



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - 3 days of burning, violence, and disorder started with a traffic dispute. Two died in the violence. There were hundreds of injuries, arrests, and stores damaged.

At 9:35 p.m., Friday, police workers Robert Wells (Black American) and John Hoff (white) went to a domestic dispute. It began at the corner of 22nd Street and Columbia Avenue.

Odessa Bradford stopped the car as she argued with Rush, her husband. She refused to move out of the intersection. The cops tried to grab her from the car. A large crowd gathered.

A man tried to help Odessa. Both were arrested. The crowd threw bricks and other debris at the police. Rumor spread that a white cop had beaten and killed a pregnant, Black American woman. This fed the disorder.

The minor incident turned into total chaos. North Philadelphia was in turmoil for days.

In response, SWAT (Special Weapons Assault Teams) was formed. These police assault teams became Special Response Teams (SRT), in many cities.

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September, 1964
SWAT Created



Philadelphia, Pennsylvania - Special Weapons Assault Teams (SWAT) was created. It was formed as a reaction to the uprising of Black Americans, the previous month. This ultra-violent police squad became Special Response Teams (SRT).

SWAT used military tactics to attack and contain Black Americans. This included men, women, children, the elderly, and the disabled. It was most used during the War on Drugs, which began in 1981 and continued into the 2020s.

SWAT was used in routine drug raids on homes. These raids came with no warning to the people inside the house. Tear gas, flash bang grenades, and heavily armed, and armored employees were used in these raids.

SWAT raids became so common, the term 'SWATTING' came into use. SWATTING was a trick, though a very dangerous one. An anonymous caller told the police there were drugs in a target house (or some other type of unlawful activity). Without any evidence, the police sent SWAT to assault the home and the people inside.

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December 10, 1964
Martin Luther King Got Nobel Peace Prize



Oslo, Norway - Martin Luther King Jr. received his Nobel Prize. The award event was held in the hall of the University of Oslo.

Mr. Jahn, Chairman of the Nobel Committee, gave the prize to King.

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December 11, 1964
Sam Cooke Killed



Los Angeles, California - Sam Cooke was shot to death. Cooke wrote and sang 'A Change Is Gonna Come' among many other popular songs. His friends included Malcolm X, Muhammad Ali, and Jim Brown (football).

Cooke was respected for his activism for Black Rights (see Civil Rights). He refused to perform at segregated events.

Mrs. Bertha Franklin shot Cooke in the chest. It pierced Cooke's heart and killed him. The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) quickly ruled the murder a 'justifiable homicide.'

Mrs. Franklin was never charged with Cooke's murder.

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