Black History Month 2024

1966 1967 1968

35 John F. Kennedy | 36 Lyndon B. Johnson | 37 Richard M. Nixon

Jim Crow Black Power Affirmative Action

April 4, 1967
Martin Luther King, Jr. Condemned Vietnam War



New York, New York - Martin Luther King, Jr. gave a speech called 'Beyond Vietnam' at Riverside Church. King spoke as head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. It was before a crowd of 3,000 people.

King said, 'Stop all bombing of North and South Vietnam. Declare a unilateral truce. I hope it would lead to peace talks. Set a date for withdrawal of all troops from Vietnam. Give the National Liberation Front a role in negotiations.'

The speech was condemned by 168 newspapers across the country. Senator Barry Goldwater (Arizona) said it 'could border a bit on treason.' President Lyndon Baines Johnson immediately ended King's access to the White House.

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April 28, 1967
Muhammad Ali Refused Vietnam War



Houston, Texas - Muhammad Ali refused to be inducted to go to the Vietnam War. As a result, the United States government immediately attempted criminal action. The New York State Athletic Commission and the World Boxing Association stripped Ali of his titles, that day.

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July 12-17, 1967
1967 Newark Riot Began



Newark, New Jersey - Black American bystanders began civil unrest after two white (Italian) Newark police workers arrested a Black American man. Up to that point, it was the most violent civil disturbance of 1967.

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July 23-28, 1967
1967 Detroit Riot



Detroit, Michigan - 43 people died in the worst civil unrest of 1967. The Detroit police killed 14. Michigan National Guardsman killed nine (9).

Sunday, July 23rd, 3:45 a.m., Detroit Police workers raided an after-hours club (or blind pig). The raid was at 9125 12th Street, in the office of the the United Community League for Civic Action. It was above the Economy Printing Company.

Inside, 82 people celebrated the return of two (2) from the Vietnam War. The police expected a few people inside, before the raid.

Once the police left, scavenging began. Later, the police returned. At 7 a.m., some were arrested. The crowds grew. It was mixed, Black American and white.

By mid-afternoon, the fires started. The unrest spread across the city. Mayor Jerome Cavanagh said it was 'critical' but not 'out of control.'

At 7:45 p.m., Cavanagh began a curfew. Alcohol and firearms sales were stopped. 80% of the arrests were Black Americans.

July 24th, President Lyndon B. Johnson sent the Army, to Detroit. Johnson used the Insurrection Act of 1807. The Act was meant for enslaved Black Americans.

July 25th, 8,000 Michigan National Guardsmen entered Detroit. They were almost all white. 4,700 paratroopers joined them. They came from the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions.

July 26th, the Guardsmen killed nine (9) people. None were killed by the Army.

July 27th, ammunition was taken from the Guardsmen. The unrest declined. By July 28th, the chaos ended.

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July 28, 1967
Kerner Commission Formed



Washington, D. C. - The Kerner Commission was formed. President Lyndon Baines Johnson issued Executive Order 11365. Johnson wanted to know what made Black Americans riot and how to prevent it.

The commission was created during the Detroit uprising. Johnson chose 11 whites and two (2) Black Americans. Three (3) questions were to be answered.

'What happened? Why did it happen? What can be done to prevent it from happening again and again?'

On February 29, 1968, the Kerner Report was completed. The Report stated, 'Our nation is moving toward two societies, one black, one white—separate and unequal.'

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